portal hypertension
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Shawn H. Sun ◽  
Thomas Eche ◽  
Chloé Dorczynski ◽  
Philippe Otal ◽  
Paul Revel-Mouroz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Bubu A. Banini ◽  
Samarth Patel ◽  
Jonathan W. Yu ◽  
Le Kang ◽  
Christopher Bailey ◽  

Amar Mukund ◽  
Shaleen Rana ◽  
Chander Mohan ◽  
Naveen Kalra ◽  
Sanjay Saran Baijal

AbstractPortal hypertension is a complication of chronic liver disease. Various radiological interventions are being done to aid in the diagnosis of portal hypertension; further, an interventional radiologist can offer various treatments for the complications of portal hypertension. Diagnosis of portal hypertension in its early stage may require hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement. Measurement of gradient also guides in diagnosing the type of portal hypertension, measuring response to treatment and prognostication. This article attempts to provide evidence-based guidelines on the management of portal hypertension and treatment of its complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan ◽  
Ranista Tongdee ◽  
Chamard Wongsa ◽  
Anupop Jitmuang ◽  
Torpong Thongngarm

Abstract Background Nodular regenerating hyperplasia (NRH) is the most common liver involvement in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Most patients are asymptomatic with gradually increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mildly elevated transaminase enzymes over the years. We report the first case of fatal liver mass rupture in a CVID patient with probable NRH. Case presentation A 24-year-old man was diagnosed with CVID at the age of 1.25 years. Genetic testing revealed a transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI) mutation. He had been receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy ever since then. The trough level of serum IgG ranged between 750–1200 mg/dL. However, he still had occasional episodes of lower respiratory tract infection until bronchiectasis developed. At 22 years old, computed tomography (CT) chest and abdomen as an investigation for lung infection revealed incidental findings of numerous nodular arterial-enhancing lesions in the liver and mild splenomegaly suggestive of NRH with portal hypertension. Seven months later, he developed sudden hypotension and tense bloody ascites. Emergency CT angiography of the abdomen showed NRH with intrahepatic hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum. Despite successful gel foam embolization, the patient died from prolonged shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusions Although CVID patients with NRH are generally asymptomatic, late complications including portal hypertension, hepatic failure, and hepatic rupture could occur. Therefore, an evaluation of liver function should be included in the regular follow-up of CVID patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Voytek Slowik ◽  
Anissa Bernardez ◽  
Heather Wasserkrug ◽  
Ryan T. Fischer ◽  
James F. Daniel ◽  

AbstractProphylactic endoscopy is routine in adults with portal hypertension (PHTN), but there is limited data in pediatrics. We sought to describe our experience with prophylactic endoscopy in pediatric PHTN. This is a retrospective study of 87 children who began surveillance endoscopy prior to gastrointestinal bleeding (primary prophylaxis) and 52 who began after an episode of bleeding (secondary prophylaxis) from 01/01/1994 to 07/01/2019. Patients who underwent primary prophylaxis had a lower mean number of endoscopies (3.897 vs 6.269, p = 0.001). The primary prophylaxis group was less likely to require a portosystemic shunt (6% vs 15%, p < 0.001) with no difference in immediate complications (1% vs 2%, p = 0.173) or 2-week complications (1% vs 2%, p = 0.097). No deaths were related to variceal bleeding or endoscopy. Kaplan–Meier Survival Curve suggests improved transplant and shunt free survival in the primary prophylaxis group (log-rank p < 0.001). Primary and secondary endoscopic prophylaxis should be considered safe for the prevention of variceal hemorrhage in pediatric portal hypertension. There are differences in outcomes in primary and secondary prophylaxis, but unclear if this is due to patient characteristics versus treatment strategy. Further study is needed to compare safety and efficacy to watchful waiting.

Akhmadu Muradi ◽  
Chyntia Olivia Maurine Jasirwan ◽  
Raden Suhartono ◽  
Patrianef Darwis ◽  
Dedy Pratama ◽  

Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is a heterogeneous group of liver disorders leading to portal hypertension. There are multiple approaches to managing portal hypertension' clinical complications to treat/prevent spontaneous hemorrhage by mitigating thrombocytopenia. Portal hypertension complications have been traditionally managed with serial endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) or with invasive open surgical procedures such as orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or portosystemic shunting, splenectomy.6–9 There are several risks associated with splenectomies, such as hemorrhagic complications or intraoperative blood loss.5,6,14 Partial Spleen Embolization (PSE) ‎may overcome the limitations of splenectomy and provide patients with an alternative treatment. An eighteen-year-old male has a splenomegaly history since he was 12 years old and has recurring hematemesis and melena. After performing abdominal computed tomography, laboratory studies, and several endoscopies, the results indicated secondary hypersplenism due to non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. The patient had 13 endoscopies and 2 EVL in 5 years. Despite adequate treatment, the patients developed recurrent variceal bleeding and no improvement in blood function. The patient underwent PSE at Integrated Cardiovascular Center in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. It was performed through the femoral access with a PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) embolus. The procedure went successful, and there was no major complication with the patient. Twenty days after the patient had an abdominal CT scan, it showed no abscess, and the spleen volume was reduced by 20%. Long-term results over a  year after the procedure are presented. PSE is a safe, effective, semi-invasive alternative to splenectomy in non-cirrhotic portal hypertension because it preserves functional spleen mass and avoids postprocedure accelerated liver disease or encephalopathy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lukas Sturm ◽  
Dominik Bettinger ◽  
Lisa Roth ◽  
Katharina Zoldan ◽  
Laura Stolz ◽  

Introduction: Despite intensive research, reliable blood-derived parameters to detect clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) in patients with cirrhosis are lacking. As altered homeostasis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), the central mediator of vasodilatation, is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension, the aim of our study was to evaluate plasma cGMP as potential biomarker of cirrhotic portal hypertension.Methods: Plasma cGMP was analyzed in cirrhotic patients with CSPH (ascites, n = 39; esophageal varices, n = 31), cirrhotic patients without CSPH (n = 21), patients with chronic liver disease without cirrhosis (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 8). cGMP was evaluated as predictor of CSPH using logistic regression models. Further, the effect of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement on plasma cGMP was investigated in a subgroup of cirrhotic patients (n = 13).Results: Plasma cGMP was significantly elevated in cirrhotic patients with CSPH compared to cirrhotic patients without CSPH [78.1 (67.6–89.2) pmol/ml vs. 39.1 (35.0–45.3) pmol/l, p &lt; 0.001]. Of note, this effect was consistent in the subgroup of patients with esophageal varices detected at screening endoscopy who had no prior manifestations of portal hypertension (p &lt; 0.001). Cirrhotic patients without CSPH displayed no significant elevation of plasma cGMP compared to patients without cirrhosis (p = 0.347) and healthy controls (p = 0.200). Regression analyses confirmed that cGMP was an independent predictor of CSPH (OR 1.042, 95% CI 1.008–1.078, p = 0.016). Interestingly, portal decompression by TIPS implantation did not lead to normalization of plasma cGMP levels (p = 0.101).Conclusions: Plasma cGMP is a promising biomarker of CSPH in patients with cirrhosis, especially with respect to screening for esophageal varices. The lacking normalization of plasma cGMP after portal decompression suggests that elevated plasma cGMP in cirrhotic portal hypertension is mainly a correlate of systemic and splanchnic vasodilatation, as these alterations have been shown to persist after TIPS implantation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Qianqian Li ◽  
Xiaozhong Guo ◽  
Ji Feng ◽  
Xiangbo Xu ◽  
Saurabh Chawla ◽  

Background. Portosystemic collateral vessels are a sign of portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. Esophageal collateral veins (ECVs) are one major type of portosystemic collateral vessels, which increase the recurrence of esophageal varices and bleeding after variceal eradication. However, the risk factors for ECVs were still unclear. Methods. We retrospectively screened cirrhotic patients who had contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images to evaluate ECVs and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic reports to evaluate gastroesophageal varices at our department. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the independent risk factors for ECVs. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed in patients with and without previous endoscopic variceal therapy which primarily included endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Results. Overall, 243 patients were included, in whom the prevalence of ECVs was 53.9%. The independent risk factors for ECVs were hepatitis C virus infection (OR = 0.250, p  = 0.026), previous EVL (OR = 1.929, p  = 0.044), platelet (OR = 0.993, p  = 0.008), and esophageal varices needing treatment (EVNTs) (OR = 2.422, p  = 0.006). The prevalence of ECVs was 60.8% (73/120) in patients undergoing EVL, 50% (10/20) in those undergoing EIS, and 47.5% (48/101) in those without previous endoscopic variceal therapy. The independent risk factors for ECVs were the use of nonselective beta-blockers (OR = 0.294, p  = 0.042) and EVNTs (OR = 3.714, p  = 0.006) in subgroup analyses of patients with and without previous endoscopic variceal therapy, respectively. Conclusions. The presence of ECVs should be closely associated with the severity of portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. Risk of ECVs might be increased by previous EVL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ryoga Hamura ◽  
Shinji Onda ◽  
Yoshihiro Shirai ◽  
Jungo Yasuda ◽  
Koichiro Haruki ◽  

Abstract Background The administration of direct-acting antiviral agents in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C has been shown to improve liver function and long-term prognosis after sustained virological response (SVR) is achieved. However, in patients with portal hypertension (PH) at the time of SVR, PH may persist despite improvement in liver function. Case presentation An 82-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C was treated with direct-acting antiviral agents and achieved SVR. During follow-up, computed tomography revealed a low-density tumor in the left lateral region of the liver with dilation of the left intrahepatic bile duct. Considering the patient’s advanced age and PH persistence with a mild decrease in liver reserve function after SVR, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) and partial splenic embolization (PSE) were performed concomitantly. Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy was performed 8 days after the PTPE and PSE. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery without any postoperative complications. Conclusions Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy after preoperative management of PH was performed safely in a patient after the elimination of hepatitis C.

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