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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. N. Raza ◽  
K. Sughra ◽  
N. Zeeshan ◽  
M. Z. Anwar ◽  
M. A. Shahzad ◽  

Abstract Although increased response rates concomitant in hepatitis C virus but relapse after treatment is threatened. Therefore, it is terrible requirement to evaluate the response of Pegylated interferon and direct acting antivirals in Punjab Pakistan. The study was conducted to find the rate of recurrence of HCV infection after treatment with Pegylated Interferon and Direct Acting Antivirals in Punjab Pakistan. This study was conducted at Department of Pathology, Nawaz Sharif Medical College Gujrat, while treatment effects monitored in different Government and Private Hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan. Total 973 patients who administered the recommended dose and divided in two groups (i) Interferon based therapy (ii) direct acting antivirals (DAAs).Other parameters like ALT and viral load studied. The rate of recurrence was higher in female infected with genotype 2b and in male with mixed genotype 3a/2b after six month of antiviral therapy. Genotype 3a showed significant response to therapy after three month. 32 among 374 (8.5%) were positive after 24 weeks of treatment with interferon, 29 (7.7%) patients have same genotype while 3 patients were re-infected with different HCV strains. With DAAs, only 27 (4.8%) patients were positive among 558 after 2 weeks and one patient re-infected with different genotype. Early and sustained virological response noted in DAAs. ALT and viral load decreased faster with DAAs that not achieved after 4 weeks with pegylated interferon. Sustained virological response appears in DAAs and recurrence rate is high in interferon therapy compared to DAAs. Therefore, reinfection has implications for correct treatment efficiency and to select strategies for retreatment cases.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Anthony K. L. Leung ◽  
Diane E. Griffin ◽  
Jürgen Bosch ◽  
Anthony R. Fehr

Emerging and re-emerging viral diseases pose continuous public health threats, and effective control requires a combination of non-pharmacologic interventions, treatment with antivirals, and prevention with vaccines. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that the world was least prepared to provide effective treatments. This lack of preparedness has been due, in large part, to a lack of investment in developing a diverse portfolio of antiviral agents, particularly those ready to combat viruses of pandemic potential. Here, we focus on a drug target called macrodomain that is critical for the replication and pathogenesis of alphaviruses and coronaviruses. Some mutations in alphavirus and coronaviral macrodomains are not tolerated for virus replication. In addition, the coronavirus macrodomain suppresses host interferon responses. Therefore, macrodomain inhibitors have the potential to block virus replication and restore the host’s protective interferon response. Viral macrodomains offer an attractive antiviral target for developing direct acting antivirals because they are highly conserved and have a structurally well-defined (druggable) binding pocket. Given that this target is distinct from the existing RNA polymerase and protease targets, a macrodomain inhibitor may complement current approaches, pre-empt the threat of resistance and offer opportunities to develop combination therapies for combating COVID-19 and future viral threats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 263-274
Chun-Ting Chen ◽  
Ming-Ying Lu ◽  
Meng-Hsuan Hsieh ◽  
Pei-Chien Tsai ◽  
Tsai-Yuan Hsieh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chun-Han Cheng ◽  
Chia-Ying Chu ◽  
Huan-Lin Chen ◽  
I-Tsung Lin ◽  
Chia-Hsien Wu ◽  

Background and AimsChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with dysregulation of glucose homeostasis, including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. However, independent risk factors associated with IR in chronic HCV-infected patients have not been detailly elucidated. Previous data regarding the impact of HCV elimination by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) on glucose homeostasis is insufficient and controversial. This study aimed to analyze the independent factors associated with IR and to evaluate the changes in glucose homeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs therapies.MethodsWe screened 704 patients with chronic HCV infection who underwent treatment with interferon-free DAAs. Patients’ baseline characteristics, biochemical and virological data were collected. The outcome measurements were their IR and β-cell function assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method at baseline and 12-weeks post-treatment.ResultsHigh IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) was observed in 35.1% of the patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, treatment experience, elevated baseline levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride, as well as Fibrosis-4 score >3.25 were independently associated with high IR. In patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR), no significant change in mean HOMA-IR was observed from baseline to 12-weeks post-treatment (2.74 ± 2.78 to 2.54 ± 2.20, p = 0.128). We observed a significant improvement in β-cell secretion stress from 121.0 ± 110.1 to 107.6 ± 93.0 (p = 0.015). Subgroup analysis revealed that SVR was associated with a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (5.31 ± 3.39 to 3.68 ± 2.57, p < 0.001), HCV genotype 1 (3.05 ± 3.11 to 2.62 ± 2.05, p = 0.027), and treatment experience (4.00 ± 3.37 to 3.01 ± 2.49, p = 0.039).ConclusionsThere were several independent factors associated with IR in patients with chronic HCV infection, including obesity, treatment experience, high serum ALT and triglyceride levels, as well as advanced hepatic fibrosis. After viral elimination by DAAs, we observed a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline high IR, HCV genotype 1, and treatment experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 389
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk ◽  
Jerzy Jaroszewicz ◽  
Anna Parfieniuk-Kowerda ◽  
Małgorzata Pawłowska ◽  
Ewa Janczewska ◽  

The introduction of the direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has substantially improved the effectiveness of the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to compare the efficacy of pangenotypic and genotype-specific DAA in the cohort of genotype (GT) four patients with HCV monoinfection and HIV coinfection. A total of 662 GT4-infected patients treated in 2015–2020—of whom 168 (25.3%) were coinfected with HIV, selected from the retrospective EpiTer-2 database—were enrolled in the analysis. Among HIV-coinfected patients, 54% (90) were treated with genotype-specific regimens and 46% (78) with pangenotypic options, while among HCV-monoinfected patients, the rates were 72% and 28%, respectively. Significantly higher rate of males (67.9% vs. 57.7%, p = 0.01), a lower rate of liver cirrhosis (10.2% vs. 18.1%, p = 0.02), and higher of treatment-naïve patients (87.5% vs. 76.7%, p = 0.003) were documented in the HIV coinfected population. The overall sustained virologic response after exclusion of non-virologic failures was achieved in 98% with no significant difference between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, 96.2% vs. 98.5%, respectively. While the genotype-specific regimens resulted in a similar cure rate regardless of the HIV status, the pangenotypic options were more efficacious in patients with HCV monoinfection (99.3% vs. 94.4%, p = 0.05). Hereby, we demonstrated the high effectiveness and good safety profile of the DAA therapy in the population of HCV GT4 infected patients with HIV coinfection supporting the current recommendations to treat HCV/HIV coinfected patients with the same options as those with HCV monoinfection.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262267
Seiichi Mawatari ◽  
Kotaro Kumagai ◽  
Kohei Oda ◽  
Kazuaki Tabu ◽  
Sho Ijuin ◽  

Background The features of hepatitis C virus patients with a sustained virologic response (SVR) who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy are unclear. Methods The study population included 1494 DAA-SVR patients without a history of HCC. The cumulative carcinogenesis rate after the end of treatment (EOT) and factors related to HCC were analyzed. Results Sixty (4.0%) patients developed HCC during a median observation period of 47.6 months. At four years, the cumulative carcinogenesis rate was 4.7%. A Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that age ≥73 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.148), male sex (HR: 3.060), hyaluronic acid (HA) ≥75 ng/mL (HR: 3.996), alpha-fetoprotein at EOT (EOT-AFP) ≥5.3 ng/mL (HR: 4.773), and albumin at EOT (EOT-Alb) <3.9 g/dL (HR: 2.305) were associated with HCC development. Especially, EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL was associated with HCC development after 3 years from EOT (HR: 6.237). Among patients who developed HCC, AFP did not increase in patients with EOT-AFP <5.3 ng/mL at the onset of HCC. Of these 5 factors, EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL was scored as 2 points; the others were scored as 1 point. The 4-year cumulative carcinogenesis rate for patients with total scores of 0–2, 3–4, and 5–6 points were 0.6%, 11.9%, and 27.1%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL is useful for predicting HCC development after an SVR. However, AFP does not increase in patients with EOT-AFP <5.3 ng/mL at the onset of HCC. The combination of EOT-AFP, age, sex, HA, and EOT-Alb is important for predicting carcinogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Gaurav Tripathi ◽  
Sheetalnath Rooge ◽  
Manisha Yadav ◽  
Babu Mathew ◽  
Nupur Sharma ◽  

Introduction: With the advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for HCV, the cure is achieved at similar rates among HIV–HCV coinfected patients as in HCV mono-infected patients. The present study evaluates host plasma metabolites as putative indicators in predicting the treatment response in baseline HIV–HCV patients.Methods: Non-cirrhotic HIV–HCV (N = 43) coinfected patients were treated with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for 12 weeks. Plasma metabolite profiling of pre- and post-therapy was analyzed in 20/43 patients. Of the 20 selected, 10 (50%) attained the sustained viral response [(SVR) (responders)] as defined by the absence of HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the treatment, and 10 (50%) did not attain the cure for HCV (nonresponders).Results: A total of 563 features were annotated (metabolomic/spectral databases). Before therapy, 39 metabolites differentiated (FC ±1.5, p &lt; 0.05) nonresponders from responders. Of these, 20 upregulated and 19 downregulated were associated with tryptophan metabolism, nicotinamide metabolism, and others. Post therapy, 62 plasma metabolites (12 upregulated and 50 downregulated, FC±1.5, p &lt; 0.05) differentiated nonresponders from responders and highlighted a significant increase in the steroid and histidine metabolism and significant decrease in tryptophan metabolism and ascorbate and pyruvate metabolism in the nonresponders. Based on random forest and multivariate linear regression analysis, the baseline level of N-acetylspermidine (FC &gt; 2, AUC = 0.940, Bfactor = −0.267) and 2-acetolactate (FC &gt; 2, AUC = 0.880, Bfactor = −0.713) significantly differentiated between nonresponders from responders in HIV–HCV coinfected patients and was able to predict the failure of treatment response.Conclusion: Increased baseline levels of N-acetylspermidine and 2-acetolactate levels are associated with the likeliness of failure to attain the cure for HCV in HIV–HCV coinfected patients.

Kai-Henrik Peiffer ◽  
Stefan Zeuzem

ZusammenfassungDie chronische Hepatitis-C-Infektion kann unbehandelt zu schwerwiegenden und potenziell lebensbedrohlichen leberassoziierten Komplikationen führen. Grundsätzlich stellt damit jede chronische Infektion mit dem Hepatitis-C-Virus (HCV) eine Indikation zur antiviralen Therapie dar. Besonders dringlich ist sie jedoch bei Patient*innen mit fortgeschrittener Lebererkrankung. In diesem Beitrag werden Indikation, Therapieziele und Grundprinzipien der direkt antiviralen Therapie beschrieben. Verschiedene Therapieregime und Möglichkeiten der Überwachung von Therapie und Therapieerfolg werden vorgestellt.Heutzutage wird die chronische HCV-Infektion interferonfrei mit direkt antiviral wirksamen Medikamenten („direct acting antivirals“ – DAA) behandelt, wobei die Wahl der Medikamente von HCV-Genotyp, Vortherapie und Fibrosestatus abhängt. Patient*innen mit kompensierter Leberzirrhose und solche ohne Leberzirrhose weisen unter Behandlung vergleichbar hohe Viruseradikationsraten auf. Auch bei dekompensierter Leberzirrhose oder dialysepflichtiger Niereninsuffizienz und selbst bei Kindern ab einem Alter von 3 Jahren ist heutzutage eine sichere und hocheffiziente antivirale Behandlung möglich. Medikamenteninteraktionen sind zu beachten, können aber einfach und schnell im Internet überprüft werden. Auch wenn sich die Prognose nach HCV-Eradikation deutlich verbessert, sollten Patient*innen mit fortgeschrittener Leberfibrose bzw. einer Leberzirrhose lebenslang weiterbeobachtet werden, um die Entstehung eines hepatozellulären Karzinoms rechtzeitig zu erkennen (HCC-Surveillance).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hae Won Yoo ◽  
Jun Yong Park ◽  
Sang Gyune Kim ◽  
Young Kul Jung ◽  
Sae Hwan Lee ◽  

AbstractWe prospectively investigated the changes of liver stiffness (LS) and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication using direct antiviral agents (DAA) over three years. LS measurement using transient elastography and serum fibrosis surrogate markers before treatment and at 48, 96, 144 weeks after starting direct-acting antivirals (DAA) according to the protocol were evaluated. Patients were also compared with historical cohort treated with pegylated interferon (peg-IFN). Sustained viral response (SVR) was observed in 95.8%. LS value in the patients achieving SVR significantly decreased over time (19.4 ± 12.9 kPa [baseline], 13.9 ± 9.1 kPa [48 weeks], 11.7 ± 8.2 kPa [96 weeks], 10.09 ± 6.23 [144 weeks], all p < 0.001). With matched analysis, the decrease in LS value was significantly larger in DAA group than peg-IFN group at both 48 weeks (29% vs. 9%) and 96 weeks (39% vs. 17%). The incidence of HCC was not significantly different between DAA and peg-IFN groups (5.5% vs. 5.4%) at 144 weeks. HCV eradication with DAA can lead to improvement of liver stiffness over time. The regression of fibrosis was greater in the group with DAA than peg-IFN.Clinical trials registration: (NCT02865369).

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