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Intisar Razzaq SHARBA ◽  
Arshad Noori AL-DUJAILI

Aim of the study: To assess serum sclerostin in female patients with beta-thalassemia and compare with the healthy controls and to predict its complication associated with the bone pathophysiology, for designed improvement the lifestyle goodliness for these patients. Material and methods: Sixty-nine female beta-thalassemia (βT) patients (54 βT major and 15 βT Intermedia), aged 8-40 years who dependent on transfused blood, and 20 healthy controls were evaluated serum sclerostin, and was examined the relationship with hematological parameters RBC, Hb, PCV, WBC, PLT, BMI, splenic status, iron, and ferritin levels. The information of beta-thalassemia patients was collected and recorded by the questioner. Results: A significantly increased serum sclerostin level (mean 26.80±0.91) pg/ml was shown in βT patients compared with the healthy controls (10.03±0.68, p < 0.001) pg/ml. Furthermore, a significant decrease (p<0.05) of the sclerostin level was observed in β-thalassemia major compared to intermedia β-thalassemia patients. Serum sclerostin level revealed a significant increase in progress age; it is highest in the age group (30-40) year as compared with age group (8-18) and (19-29) year respectively. Sclerostin showed no associations with the RBC, Hb, PCV, and significantly positively correlated (p<0.05) with serum iron, ferritin levels, WBC, and PLT count. Significantly higher sclerostin levels in splenectomized and underweight groups were observed compared to unsplenectomized and normal-weight groups (p<0.05) of βT patients. Conclusion: Sclerostin plays an important role in beta-thalassemia patients and can serve as a biomarker associated with the bone pathophysiology and indicator to prevent the continuation of such serious diseases caused by iron overload in these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 653-658
Xin Yang ◽  
Shandan Wang

This study intends to promote bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into neural stem cells by down-regulating p38 MAPK/NF-κB to heal neurodegeneration. 26 patients with neurodegenerative diseases were enrolled from the Department of Neurology along with recruitment of 26 other healthy controls followed by analysis of p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway expression by ELISA. BMSCs were cultured and characterized by flow cytometry. Western blot and qRTPCR measured the p38 MAPK/NF-κB expression in the absence or presence of p38 MAPK/NF-κB inhibitors. p38 MAPK/NF-κB expression in 26 neurodegenerative patients was significantly higher than that of 26 healthy controls. The qRT-PCR and western blot results showed that the neural stem cell-specific proteins expression was increased as days went; after addition of p38 MAPK/NF-κB inhibitor, the expression of related specific genes were significantly decreased. In conclusion, inhibition of the expression of p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway can heal neurodegeneration by promoting the differentiation of BMSCs into neural stem cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andreas Rosén Rasmussen ◽  
Andrea Raballo ◽  
Antonio Preti ◽  
Ditte Sæbye ◽  
Josef Parnas

BackgroundAnomalies of imagination encompass disturbances of the basic experiential structure of fantasies and imagery that can be explored in a semi-structured way with the Examination of Anomalous Fantasy and Imagination (EAFI). We aimed (1) to examine the distribution of anomalies of imagination among different diagnostic groups and a group of healthy controls, and (2) to examine their relation with disorders of basic self, perceptual disturbances and canonical state psychopathology of the schizophrenia-spectrum (positive, negative and general symptoms).MethodsThe 81 participants included patients with schizophrenia or other non-affective psychosis (N = 32), schizotypal personality disorder (N = 15) or other mental illness (N = 16) and healthy controls (N = 18). The assessment encompassed EAFI, Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE), parts of Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). For network analysis, the associations of EAFI with the other psychopathological variables were tested by Pearson's correlation coefficient and graphically represented using multidimensional clustering. Comparisons between correlations in the network were tested with Steiger's test.ResultsAnomalies of imagination aggregated significantly in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to other mental illness and healthy controls with no difference between schizophrenia and schizotypal disorder. In the network analysis, anomalies of imagination were closely inter-connected with self-disorders. Although, the anomalies of imagination correlated moderately with perceptual disturbance and positive, negative and general state symptomatology, these dimensions aggregated separately and relatively distant in the network.ConclusionsThe results support that anomalies of imagination are highly characteristic of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and closely related to self-disorders.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Hande Yüceer ◽  
Duygu Gezen Ak ◽  
Gülçin Benbir Şenel ◽  
Erdinç Dursun ◽  
Vuslat Yılmaz ◽  

Abstract Objective: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder long hypothesised to be an autoimmune disease. Complement-mediated immune mechanisms have not been investigated in detail in narcolepsy. Our aim was to establish the significance of classical pathway activation in narcolepsy. Methods: Sera of 42 narcolepsy patients and 26 healthy controls were screened with ELISA to determine the levels of C1q, C3a, C4d and complement component 4 binding protein (C4BP). A home-made ELISA method was developed to detect antibodies to C4BP-alpha (anti-C4BPA). The correlation between complement levels and clinical findings was examined. Results: C1q levels were significantly higher in narcolepsy patients while C4d and C4BP levels were significantly lower compared to healthy controls. C3a levels were comparable among patients and controls. Eleven narcolepsy patients showed serum anti-C4BPA levels. Total rapid eye movements (REM) time, sleep onset latency, REM sleep latency, sleep activity, percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset and Epworth sleepiness scale scores were correlated with levels of different complement factors. Conclusion: Complement-mediated immune mechanisms might partake in narcolepsy pathogenesis. The precise role of autoantibodies on complement level alterations needs to be investigated. Levels of complement factors and degradation products may potentially be utilised as biomarkers to predict the clinical severity of narcolepsy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tom Maudrich ◽  
Susanne Hähner ◽  
Rouven Kenville ◽  
Patrick Ragert

BackgroundSomatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) represent a non-invasive tool to assess neural responses elicited by somatosensory stimuli acquired via electrophysiological recordings. To date, there is no comprehensive evaluation of SEPs for the diagnostic investigation of exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity. This systematic review aims at highlighting the potential of SEP measurements as a diagnostic tool to investigate exercise-induced functional neuroplasticity of the sensorimotor system by reviewing studies comparing SEP parameters between athletes and healthy controls who are not involved in organized sports as well as between athlete cohorts of different sport disciplines.MethodsA systematic literature search was conducted across three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) by two independent researchers. Three hundred and ninety-seven records were identified, of which 10 cross-sectional studies were considered eligible.ResultsDifferences in SEP amplitudes and latencies between athletes and healthy controls or between athletes of different cohorts as well as associations between SEP parameters and demographic/behavioral variables (years of training, hours of training per week &amp; reaction time) were observed in seven out of 10 included studies. In particular, several studies highlight differences in short- and long-latency SEP parameters, as well as high-frequency oscillations (HFO) when comparing athletes and healthy controls. Neuroplastic differences in athletes appear to be modality-specific as well as dependent on training regimens and sport-specific requirements. This is exemplified by differences in SEP parameters of various athlete populations after stimulation of their primarily trained limb.ConclusionTaken together, the existing literature suggests that athletes show specific functional neuroplasticity in the somatosensory system. Therefore, this systematic review highlights the potential of SEP measurements as an easy-to-use and inexpensive diagnostic tool to investigate functional neuroplasticity in the sensorimotor system of athletes. However, there are limitations regarding the small sample sizes and inconsistent methodology of SEP measurements in the studies reviewed. Therefore, future intervention studies are needed to verify and extend the conclusions drawn here.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yan Zhou ◽  
Yingyi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Zhounan Cheng ◽  
Minzhu Tang ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNA-seq identified mRNAs and silicosis susceptibility.MethodsA comprehensive RNA-seq was performed to screen for differently expressed mRNAs in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight subjects exposed to silica dust (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls). Following this, the SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility, were screened through silicosis-related genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy controls), whereas functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-SNPs were identified using the GTEx database. Finally, the association between functional eQTL-SNPs and silicosis susceptibility (194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy controls) was validated.ResultsA total of 70 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold change &gt; 2 or fold change &lt; 0.5, P &lt; 0.05) was obtained using RNA-seq. Furthermore, 476 SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility (P &lt; 0.05) were obtained using GWAS, whereas subsequent six functional eQTL-SNPs were identified. The mutant A allele of rs9273410 in HLA-DQB1 indicated a potential increase in silicosis susceptibility in the validation stage (additive model: odds ratio (OR)= 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.74, P = 0.061), whereas the combination of GWAS and the validation results indicated that the mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility (additive model: OR = 1.35, 95% CI =1.09–1.68, P = 0.006).ConclusionThe mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility by modulating the expression of HLA-DQB1.

2022 ◽  
Charalampos Papadopoulos ◽  
Eleftheria Spourita ◽  
Konstantinos Mimidis ◽  
George Kolios ◽  
Ioannis Tentes ◽  

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) constitutes a significant cause of deaths, liver transplantations and economic costs worldwide. Despite extended research, investigations on the role of erythrocytes are scarce. Red blood cells from experimental animals and human patients with NASH, present phosphatidylserine exposure which is then recognized by Kupffer cells. This event leads to erythrophagocytosis, and amplification of inflammation through iron disposition. In addition, it has been shown that erythrocytes from NASH patients release the chemokine MCP1, leading to increased TNF-α release from macrophages RAW 264.7. However, erythrophagocytosis can also be caused by reduced CD47 levels. In addition, increased MCP1 release could be either signal-induced, or caused by higher MCP1 levels on the erythrocyte membrane. Finally, erythrocyte efferocytosis could provide additional inflammatory metabolites. In this study, we measured the erythrocyte membrane levels of CD47 and MCP1 by ELISA, and cholesterol and sphingosine with thin-layer chromatography. 18 patients (8 men, 10 women aged 56.7+/-11.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (7 men, 7 women aged 39.3+/-15.5 years) participated in our study. The erythrocyte CD47 levels were decreased in the erythrocyte membranes of NASH patients (844+/-409 pg/ml) compared to healthy controls (2969+/-1936 pg/ml) with P(Healthy>NAFLD)=99.1%, while the levels of MCP1 were increased in NASH patients (389+/-255 pg/ml), compared to healthy controls (230+/-117 pg/ml) with P(Healthy<NAFLD)=88.9%. Moreover, in erythrocyte membranes there was a statistically significant accumulation of sphingosine and cholesterol in NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. Our results imply that erythrocytes release chemotactic (find me signals) MCP1, while containing reduced (do not eat me signals) CD47. These molecules can lead to erythrophagocytosis. Next, increased (goodbye signals) sphingosine and cholesterol could augment inflammation by metabolic reprogramming.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 921
Shang-Hung Lin ◽  
Ji-Chen Ho ◽  
Sung-Chou Li ◽  
Yu-Wen Cheng ◽  
Chung-Yuan Hsu ◽  

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) results from joint destruction by osteoclasts. The promising efficacy of TNF-α blockage indicates its important role in osteoclastogenesis of PsA. WNT ligands actively regulate osteoclastogenesis. We investigated how WNT ligands activate osteoclasts amid the TNF-α milieu in PsA. We first profiled the expression of WNT ligands in CD14+ monocyte-derived osteoclasts (MDOC) from five PsA patients and five healthy controls (HC) and then validated the candidate WNT ligands in 32 PsA patients and 16 HC. Through RNA interference against WNT ligands in MDOC, we determined the mechanisms by which TNF-α exerts its effects on osteclastogenesis or chemotaxis. WNT5A was selectively upregulated by TNF-α in MDOC from PsA patients. The number of CD68+WNT5A+ osteoclasts increased in PsA joints. CXCL1, CXCL16, and MCP-1 was selectively increased in supernatants of MDOC from PsA patients. RNA interference against WNT5A abolished the increased MCP-1 from MDOC and THP-1-cell-derived osteoclasts. The increased migration of osteoclast precursors (OCP) induced by supernatant from PsA MDOC was abolished by the MCP-1 neutralizing antibody. WNT5A and MCP-1 expressions were decreased in MDOC from PsA patients treated by biologics against TNF-α but not IL-17. We conclude that TNF-α recruits OCP by increased MCP-1 production but does not directly activate osteoclastogenesis in PsA.

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