Healthy Controls
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 78-84
Author(s):  
Felix Paolo J. Lizarondo ◽  
Mia Katrina R. Gervasio ◽  
Charmaine Vanessa S. Chamberlin ◽  
Charissa Mia S. Gnilo ◽  
Claudine Y. Silva

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (09) ◽  
pp. 1031-1039
Author(s):  
Yasser N. Ahmed ◽  
◽  
Ghassan A. Al-Shamma ◽  
Abdullah Salih Hassen ◽  
◽  
...  

Background Psoriasis is a prevalent inflammatory skin disease. Psoriasis is a complex illness in which environmental variables acting on individuals with unique genetic predisposition causing immunological dysregulation. Claudins are transmembrane proteins that help to generate tight junctions by binding to the actin cytoskeleton. Claudin 3 in the blood is thought to be a good indicator of intestinal permeability. Objective: The aim of this study was to detect of the alteration of claudin-3 in psoriasis patient and find the correlation between severity and concentration of the claudin-3. Patients and methods: forty psoriatic patients (25males and 15 females) and thirty normal healthy controls (19 men and 11 females) who were age and sex matched to the cases group were included in this study. They were chosen at random from Al Fallujah hospital Dermatology Department outpatient clinic. Result: When compared to the control group, the psoriasis group had substantially greater levels of claudin-3 (mean=2.18 ± 0.16 versus 1.27 ± 0.03; p0.0001). Furthermore, the amount of claudin-3 rose progressively as the severity grade increased (001). There were no significant correlations between claudin-3 levels and gender, dietary status, or family history in the psoriasis group (p>0.05 for each). Conclusion: Claudin-3 levels were considerably greater in psoriasis patients than in healthy controls. PASI levels were shown to be linked to claudin-3 levels.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sibel OZCAN ◽  
Nilgun YILDIRIM ◽  
Mesut YUR ◽  
Mehmet Ridvan OZDEDE ◽  
Mete OZCAN

Abstract PurposeAsprosin is a recently discovered hormone released by white adipose tissue (WAT) that is typically significantly elevated in obese adults. Consequently, the adverse effects of increasing WAT in obesity during breast cancer (BC) development and progression have attracted interest of researchers and clinical practitioners. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the asprosin levels are associated with the probability of women having BC. MethodsThe study sample comprised of 45 female patients diagnosed with invasive BC and 42 healthy women that served as controls. Asprosin serum level was quantified in all subjects by ELISA, whereas serum levels of CEA and CA 15–3 were measured using an immunology analyzer. The potential association between asprosin and BC was examined through logistic regression analyses, while samples provided by BC patients were further subjected to ROC analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of asprosin. ResultsAsprosin levels were significantly higher in BC patients compared to healthy controls (2.38 ± 0.54 vs. 1.39 ± 0.53 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that the increased asprosin levels were associated with a significantly higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for family history of breast and/or gynecological cancer, dyslipidemia, and BMI (odds ratio = 157.92; 95% confidence interval = 17.22−1447.96). When 1.78 ng/mL was adopted as the cut-off value, AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of asprosin for BC were 0.943, 91.1%, and 88.1%, respectively. ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate that asprosin is elevated in BC and can thus be an appropriate candidate for breast cancer diagnosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gregory C. A. Amos ◽  
Chrysi Sergaki ◽  
Alastair Logan ◽  
Rolland Iriarte ◽  
Ayman Bannaga ◽  
...  

AbstractUnderstanding the variables that influence microbiome studies is critical for successful translational research. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex group of diseases that can present at multiple locations within the Gastrointestinal tract. Here, using the FAMISHED study cohort, we aimed to investigate the relationship between IBD condition, IBD disease location, and the microbiome. Signatures of the microbiome, including measures of diversity, taxonomy, and functionality, all significantly differed across the three different IBD conditions, Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and microscopic colitis (MC). Notably, when stratifying by disease location, patients with CD in the terminal ileum were more similar to healthy controls than patients with CD in the small bowel or colon, however no differences were observed at different disease locations across patients with UC. Change in taxonomic composition resulted in changes in function, with CD at each disease location, UC and MC all having unique functional dysbioses. CD patients in particular had deficiencies in Short-Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) pathways. Our results demonstrate the complex relationship between IBD and the microbiome and highlight the need for consistent strategies for the stratification of clinical cohorts and downstream analysis to ensure results across microbiome studies and clinical trials are comparable.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xixuan Li ◽  
Shufang Zhang ◽  
Jingxuan Tan ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  
Xuejia Zhai ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Major depression disorder (MDD) is a mental disease that seriously endangers human physical and mental health. The purpose of present study is to detect the differences of plasma metabolic profiles between MDD patients and healthy controls. Moreover, the hospitalization process of MDD patients was followed to explore the reversal of metabolic abnormalities in MDD patients by conventional treatment in the form of self-control.Methods Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was used to detect the metabolic profiles in 47 plasma samples from 12 controls and 12 MDD patients. Multivariate statistical analysis and K-means clustering were operated to search for significantly different metabolites (SDMs) between pair-comparison groups and specific metabolites (SMs) with ideal variation trend in relative content. Finally, the metabolites were integrated into Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways to preliminarily explore the potential mechanism of MDD disrupting the metabolic process.Results There were significant differences in plasma metabolic profiles between healthy controls and MDD patients. A total of 14 SDMs between untreated MDD patients and healthy controls were classified into the top ten KEGG pathways enrichment, among which the relative contents of 4 SMs, 9-HPODE, imidazoleacetic acid, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and arachidonic acid (AA) showed a regular variation trend after MDD patients’ treatment. A new metabolite-pathway network containing 4 SMs and 8 pathways was accessed after further integration analysis. The sample size calculation showed that a verification set of 84-135 subjects (containing healthy controls and MDD paients) was desired to confirm the results of this study.Conclusion The results indicate that the transition in metabolic pathways during the occurrence and treatment process of MDD is mainly dominated by transformations in lipid metabolism and its relevant signaling pathway system. Additionally, histidine metabolism is also engaged. Subsequent large-scale validation study is acquired to evaluate whether the selected metabolites have the potential to diagnose and access the therapeutic effect of MDD, and to explore the probable mechanism of MDD in combination with other technologies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Catherine Laliberté ◽  
Nicole Ng ◽  
Denise Eymael ◽  
Kevin Higgins ◽  
Aiman Ali ◽  
...  

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a devastating disease that is usually associated with a dense associated inflammatory infiltrate. Characterizing tumor-associated inflammation is critical to understand the pathogenies of tumor development and progression.Methods: We have tested a protocol to analyze tissue and salivary immune cells and mediators of 37 patients with OSCC at different stages and compared to eight chronic periodontitis patients and 24 healthy controls. Tissue analysis was based on fluorescent immunohistochemistry (FIHC) and inflammatory mediators were analyzed using a Luminex-based 30-Plex panel. Immune cells were analyzed using multichannel flow cytometry including CD45, CD66b, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD56, CD68, CD138, PD-1, and PD-L1.Results: We show an increase in OSCC-associated inflammation characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and GMCSF and increased salivary immune cells.Conclusion: We described a new method to analyze salivary inflammatory markers that can be used in future studies to monitor disease progression and prognosis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sha Chen ◽  
Tingting Lv ◽  
Guangyong Sun ◽  
Shuxiang Li ◽  
Weijia Duan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background & Aims Gamma-delta (γδ) T cells are involved in the development of diverse liver and autoimmune diseases, whereas the role of γδ T cells in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) remains unclear. Methods We analyzed the number, phenotypes, and functional molecules of γδ T cells in PBC patients (n = 74) and sex- and age-matched healthy controls (HCs) (n = 74) by flow cytometric analysis. Results We identified two distinct functional subsets of circulating γδ T cells according to the CD3/TCRγδ complex: the TCRγδhigh and TCRγδlow subsets. Approximately three-quarters of cells in the TCRγδhigh subset were Vδ1 T cells, while Vδ2 T cells were enriched in the TCRγδlow subset in HCs. The frequency and absolute number of circulating TCRγδlow cells was significantly decreased in PBC patients compared with HCs (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the frequency of TCRγδlow cells was negatively correlated with disease severity and positively correlated with the ursodeoxycholic acid response. TCRγδlow cells exhibited a similar apoptotic and proliferative phenotype but enhanced liver-homing chemokine receptor (CXCR6) expression in PBC patients compared with HCs. In addition, both TCRγδhigh and TCRγδlow subsets were more activated in PBC compared with HCs, characterized by elevated expression levels of CD69 and HLA-DR. Finally, we found an increased granzyme B (GZMB) production and similar IFN-γ and TNF-α production of TCRγδlow cells in PBC patients compared with HCs. Conclusion The TCRγδlow subset might be a potential marker for disease progression and treatment response in PBC, which may play a crucial role in liver injury through increased CXCR6 expression and GZMB production.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 10158
Author(s):  
Marco Paoletta ◽  
Antimo Moretti ◽  
Sara Liguori ◽  
Alessandra Di Paola ◽  
Chiara Tortora ◽  
...  

The role of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid (EC/EV) system in bone metabolism has recently received attention. Current literature evidences the modulation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts through the activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in various pathological conditions with secondary involvement of bone tissue. However, this role is still unclear in primary bone diseases. Paget’s disease of the bone (PDB) could be considered a disease model for analyzing the role of the EC/EV system on osteoclasts (OCs), speculating the potential use of specific agents targeting this system for managing metabolic bone disorders. The aim of the study is to analyze OCs expression of EC/EV system in patients with PDB and to compare OCs activity between this population and healthy people. Finally, we investigate whether specific agents targeting EC/EV systems are able to modulate OCs activity in this metabolic bone disorder. We found a significant increase in cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) protein expression in patients with PDB, compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we found a significant reduction in multi-nucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)–positive OCs and resorption areas after treatment with JWH-133. CB2 could be a molecular target for reducing the activity of OCs in PDB, opening new therapeutic scenarios for the management of this condition.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xixiang Tang ◽  
Ying Tan ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  
Mei Li ◽  
Xuemin He ◽  
...  

Background: Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an essential contributor to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The monocyte–to–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) is a novel and simple measure related to inflammatory and oxidative stress status. However, little is known regarding the role of the MHR in evaluating the development of DR.Methods: A total of 771 patients with T2DM and 607 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. MHR determination and eye examination were performed. The association of MHR with the prevalence of DR in T2DM patients was analyzed.Results: The MHR in patients with DR was significantly higher than that in both non-DR diabetic patients (P &lt; 0.05) and healthy controls (P &lt; 0.01). No significance was observed in the MHR of different DR severity grades. Moreover, the MHR was similar between patients with non-macular oedema and those with macular oedema. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MHR was independently associated with the prevalence of DR in diabetic patients [odds ratio (OR) = 1.438, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.249–1.655, P &lt; 0.01]. After additional stratification by HbA1c level and diabetic duration, the MHR was still independently associated with the prevalence of DR.Conclusions: Our study suggests that the MHR can be used as a marker to indicate the prevalence of DR in patients with T2DM.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Sanne van der Heijden ◽  
Frederike Schirmbeck ◽  
Matthew J. Kempton ◽  
Mark van der Gaag ◽  
Kelly Allot ◽  
...  

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