response to treatment
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Author(s):  
Giorgia Foggetti ◽  
Chuan Li ◽  
Hongchen Cai ◽  
Dmitri A. Petrov ◽  
Monte M. Winslow ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 350-359
Author(s):  
Piotr Łacina ◽  
Aleksandra Butrym ◽  
Diana Frontkiewicz ◽  
Grzegorz Mazur ◽  
Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik

CD147 (basigin, BSG) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in energy metabolism that plays a role in cancer cell survival. Its soluble form is a promising marker of some diseases, but it is otherwise poorly studied. CD147 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) and is known to affect MM progression, while its genetic variants are associated with MM survival. In the present study, we aimed to assess serum soluble CD147 (sCD147) expression as a potential marker in MM. We found that sCD147 level was higher in MM patients compared to healthy individuals. It was also higher in patients with more advanced disease (ISS III) compared to both patients with less advanced MM and healthy individuals, while its level was observed to drop after positive response to treatment. Patients with high sCD147 were characterized by worse overall survival. sCD147 level did not directly correlate with bone marrow CD147 mRNA expression. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum sCD147 may be a prognostic marker in MM.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 877
Author(s):  
Pierre Philouze ◽  
Arnaud Gauthier ◽  
Alexandra Lauret ◽  
Céline Malesys ◽  
Giovanna Muggiolu ◽  
...  

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) with a disease-free survival at 3 years that does not exceed 30%. Biomarkers able to predict clinical outcomes are clearly needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a short-term culture of tumour fragments irradiated ex vivo could anticipate patient responses to chemo- and/or radiotherapies. Biopsies were collected prior to treatment from a cohort of 28 patients with non-operable tumours of the oral cavity or oropharynx, and then cultured ex vivo. Short-term biopsy slice culture is a robust method that keeps cells viable for 7 days. Different biomarkers involved in the stemness status (CD44) or the DNA damage response (pATM and γ-H2AX) were investigated for their potential to predict the treatment response. A higher expression of all these markers was predictive of a poor response to treatment. This allowed the stratification of responder or non-responder patients to treatment. Moreover, the ratio for the expression of the three markers 24 h after 4 Gy irradiation versus 0 Gy was higher in responder than in non-responder patients. Finally, combining these biomarkers greatly improved their predictive potential, especially when the γ-H2AX ratio was associated with the CD44 ratio or the pATM ratio. These results encourage further evaluation of these biomarkers in a larger cohort of patients.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 138
Author(s):  
Vladimir Kanygin ◽  
Aleksandr Kichigin ◽  
Alexander Zaboronok ◽  
Anna Kasatova ◽  
Elena Petrova ◽  
...  

(1) Background: accelerator-based neutron sources are a new frontier for BNCT but many technical issues remain. We aimed to study such issues and results in larger-animal BNCT (cats and dogs) with naturally occurring, malignant tumors in different locations as an intermediate step in translating current research into clinical practice. (2) Methods: 10 pet cats and dogs with incurable, malignant tumors that had no treatment alternatives were included in this study. A tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation was used as a neutron source. As a boron-containing agent, 10B-enriched sodium borocaptate (BSH) was used at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Animal condition as well as tumor progression/regression were monitored. (3) Results: regression of tumors in response to treatment, improvements in the overall clinical picture, and an increase in the estimated duration and quality of life were observed. Treatment-related toxicity was mild and reversible. (4) Conclusions: our study contributes to preparations for human BNCT clinical trials and suggests utility for veterinary oncology.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 404
Author(s):  
Yuri Belotti ◽  
Elaine Hsuen Lim ◽  
Chwee Teck Lim

Ovarian cancer is the eighth global leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The most common form is the high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). No further improvements in the 5-year overall survival have been seen over the last 40 years since the adoption of platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Hence, a better understanding of the mechanisms governing this aggressive phenotype would help identify better therapeutic strategies. Recent research linked onset, progression, and response to treatment with dysregulated components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in many types of cancer. In this study, using bioinformatic approaches, we identified a 19-gene TME-related HGSOC prognostic genetic panel (19 prognostic genes (PLXNB2, HMCN2, NDNF, NTN1, TGFBI, CHAD, CLEC5A, PLXNA1, CST9, LOXL4, MMP17, PI3, PRSS1, SERPINA10, TLL1, CBLN2, IL26, NRG4, and WNT9A) by assessing the RNA sequencing data of 342 tumors available in the TCGA database. Using machine learning, we found that specific patterns of infiltrating immune cells characterized each risk group. Furthermore, we demonstrated the predictive potential of our risk score across different platforms and its improved prognostic performance compared with other gene panels.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Antonio Faiella ◽  
Ferdinando Riccardi ◽  
Giacomo Cartenì ◽  
Martina Chiurazzi ◽  
Livia Onofrio

Background. c-MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The binding of HGF to c-MET regulates several cellular functions: differentiation, proliferation, epithelial cell motility, angiogenesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, it is known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Comprehension of HGF-c-MET signaling pathway might have important clinical consequences allowing to predict prognosis, response to treatment, and survival rates based on its expression and dysregulation. Discussion. c-MET represents a useful molecular target for novel engineered drugs. Several clinical trials are underway for various solid tumors and the development of new specific monoclonal antibodies depends on the recent knowledge about the definite c-MET role in each different malignance. Recent clinical trials based on c-MET molecular targets result in good safety profile and represent a promising therapeutic strategy for solid cancers, in monotherapy or in combination with other target drugs. Conclusion. The list of cell surface receptors crosslinking with the c-MET signaling is constantly growing, highlighting the importance of this pathway for personalized target therapy. Research on the combination of c-MET inhibitors with other drugs will hopefully lead to discovery of new effective treatment options.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114134119
Author(s):  
Shoubao Ma ◽  
Tingting Tang ◽  
Xiaojin Wu ◽  
Anthony G. Mansour ◽  
Ting Lu ◽  
...  

The axis of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) plays prominent roles in cell growth and motility. In addition, PDGF-D enhances human natural killer (NK) cell effector functions when binding to the NKp44 receptor. Here, we report an additional but previously unknown role of PDGF-D, whereby it mediates interleukin-15 (IL-15)–induced human NK cell survival but not effector functions via its binding to PDGFRβ but independent of its binding to NKp44. Resting NK cells express no PDGFRβ and only a low level of PDGF-D, but both are significantly up-regulated by IL-15, via the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway, to promote cell survival in an autocrine manner. Both ectopic and IL-15–induced expression of PDGFRβ improves NK cell survival in response to treatment with PDGF-D. Our results suggest that the PDGF-D−PDGFRβ signaling pathway is a mechanism by which IL-15 selectively regulates the survival of human NK cells without modulating their effector functions.


Author(s):  
А.Ж. Фурсова ◽  
А.С. Дербенева ◽  
М.С. Тарасов ◽  
И.Ф. Никулич ◽  
В.А. Девяткин ◽  
...  

Возрастная макулярная дегенерация (ВМД) становится основной причиной потери зрения людьми старше 60 лет. Неоваскулярная форма ВМД характеризуется хориоидальной неоваскуляризацией, основным триггером которой является фактор роста эндотелия сосудов (VEGF), ингибирование которого - современный стандарт лечения. Значительная вариабельность ответа на анти-VEGF-терапию определяет актуальность поиска биологических маркеров - прогностических критериев ответа на лечение. Проведен анализ зависимости ответа 110 пациентов с нВМД на анти-VEGF-терапию от функциональных и анатомических параметров сетчатки (по данным оптической когерентной томографии) и длины теломер лейкоцитов (ДТЛ, оценивали методом количественной ПЦР). В 100 % глаз наблюдали положительную динамику максимально корригированной остроты зрения (МКОЗ). Центральная толщина сетчатки (ЦТС) снизилась после третьей инъекции до 265 [234-306] мкм, к концу периода наблюдения - до 211 [190-262] мкм. Сохранение активности субретинальной неоваскулярной мембраны (СНМ) в конце периода наблюдения коррелировало с более низкими показателями исходной МКОЗ и высокими значениями исходной ЦТС. Выявлена ассоциация ДТЛ с ответом на лечение: у пациентов с большей ДТЛ чаще наблюдали переход активной формы СНМ в неактивную уже после трех инъекций, в то время как при меньшей ДТЛ чаще сохранялась активность СНМ, что определяло потребность в большем числе интравитреальных инъекций. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is becoming the leading cause of vision loss in people over 60 years of age. The neovascular form of AMD (nVMD) is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV), the main trigger of which is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the inhibition of which is the current standard of treatment. Significant variability of response to anti-VEGF therapy determines the relevance of the search for biological markers - prognostic criteria of treatment response. We analyzed the response of 110 nVMD patients to anti-VEGF therapy depending on the functional and anatomical parameters of the retina (according to optical coherence tomography, OCT) and leukocyte telomere length (LTL, was assessed by quantitative PCR). Positive dynamics of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was observed in 100 % of eyes. The central retinal thickness (CRT) decreased after the 3rd injection to 265 [234-306] µm, by the end of the observation period - to 211 [190-262] µm. The retention of activity of the subretinal neovascular membrane (SNM) at the end of the observation period correlated with lower values of the initial BCVA and high values of the initial CRT. An association of LTL with response to treatment was revealed: in patients with higher LTL the active form of SNM was more often switched to inactive after three injections, while with lower LTL, the activity of SNM was more often preserved, which determined the need for more intravitreal injections.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ben Nicholas ◽  
Jane Guo ◽  
Hyun-Hee Lee ◽  
Alistair Bailey ◽  
Rene de Waal Malefyt ◽  
...  

Asthma is a disease of complex origin and multiple pathologies. There are currently very few biomarkers of proven utility in its diagnosis, management or response to treatment. Recent studies have identified multiple asthma phenotypes following biofluid analysis; however, such findings may be driven by the well-characterised alterations in immune cell populations in asthma. We present a study designed to identify cell type-specific gene signatures of severe allergic asthma in peripheral blood samples. Using transcriptomic profiling of four magnetically purified peripheral blood cell types, we identify significant gene expression changes in monocytes and NK cells but not T lymphocytes in severe asthmatics. Pathway analysis indicates dysfunction of immune cell regulation and bacterial suppression in the NK cells. These gene expression changes may be useful on their own as prognostic peripheral blood cell markers of severe asthma, but also may indicate novel cell pathways for therapeutic intervention.


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