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2022 ◽  
Christian Metallo ◽  
Michal Handzlik ◽  
Jivani Gengatharan ◽  
Katie Frizzi ◽  
Grace McGregor ◽  

Abstract Type 2 diabetes represents a disease spectrum in which chronic metabolic dysfunction damages multiple organ systems including liver, kidneys, and peripheral nerves1,2. While onset and progression of these co-morbidities are linked with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia3-7, aberrant amino acid metabolism also contributes to pathogenesis of diabetes and potentially its complications8-10. Serine and glycine are closely related non-essential amino acids11,12 that are consistently reduced in patients with metabolic syndrome10,13-16, but the mechanistic drivers of serine deficiency and the downstream metabolic and phenotypic consequences remain unclear. Low systemic serine, a serine-opathy, is also emerging as a hallmark of macular and peripheral nerve disorders. Specifically, serine deficiency correlates positively with impaired visual acuity and peripheral neuropathy (PN)17-19. Here we demonstrate that aberrant serine homeostasis in the liver drives serine and glycine deficiencies in genetically obese and hyperglycaemic mice. This serine-opathy can be diagnosed with a serine tolerance test that quantifies systemic serine disposal. Mimicking these metabolic alterations via dietary serine/glycine restriction together with high fat intake dramatically accelerates thermal hypoalgesia in mice and reduces epidermal sensory nerve density, which are accompanied by extensive sciatic nerve lipid remodeling. These phenotypes were subsequently normalized by myriocin, linking serine-associated PN with sphingolipid biosynthesis. These findings identify systemic serine deficiency and dyslipidemia as novel risk factors for PN that may be exploited therapeutically.

Zhengru Liu ◽  
Mingming Qi ◽  
Shan Tian ◽  
Qian Yang ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  

Ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (USP25) plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. However, the role of USP25 in acute pancreatitis (AP) is still unclear. To evaluate the role of USP25 in AP, we conducted research on clinical AP patients, USP25wild-type(WT)/USP25 knockout (USP25−/−) mice, and pancreatic acinar cells. Our results showed that serum USP25 concentration was higher in AP patients than in healthy controls and was positively correlated with disease severity. AP patients’ serum USP25 levels after treatment were significantly lower than that at the onset of AP. Moreover, USP25 expression was upregulated in cerulein-induced AP in mice, while USP25 deficiency attenuates AP and AP-related multiple organ injury. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that USP25 exacerbates AP by promoting the release of pro-inflammatory factors and destroying tight junctions of the pancreas. We showed that USP25 aggravates AP and AP-related multiple organ injury by activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Targeting the action of USP25 may present a potential therapeutic option for treating AP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Urszula Abramczyk ◽  
Maciej Nowaczyński ◽  
Adam Słomczyński ◽  
Piotr Wojnicz ◽  
Piotr Zatyka ◽  

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related major health consequences involve the lungs, a growing body of evidence indicates that COVID-19 is not inert to the pancreas either. This review presents a summary of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pancreatic dysfunction during the course of COVID-19, the comparison of the effects of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on pancreatic function, and a summary of how drugs used in COVID-19 treatment may affect this organ. It appears that diabetes is not only a condition that predisposes a patient to suffer from more severe COVID-19, but it may also develop as a consequence of infection with this virus. Some SARS-CoV-2 inpatients experience acute pancreatitis due to direct infection of the tissue with the virus or due to systemic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) accompanied by elevated levels of amylase and lipase. There are also reports that reveal a relationship between the development and treatment of pancreatic cancer and SARS-CoV-2 infection. It has been postulated that evaluation of pancreatic function should be increased in post-COVID-19 patients, both adults and children.

2022 ◽  
Nikita M Patel ◽  
Debora Collotta ◽  
Eleonora Aimaretti ◽  
Gustavo Ferreira Alves ◽  
Sarah Kröller ◽  

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway inhibitor (baricitinib) on the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock (HS) and (b) whether treatment with baricitinib attenuates the activation of JAK/STAT, NF-κB and NLRP3 caused by HS. Background: Post-traumatic MODS, which is in part due to excessive systemic inflammation, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The JAK/STAT pathway is a regulator of numerous growth factor and cytokine receptors and, hence, is considered a potential master regulator of many inflammatory signaling processes. However, its role in trauma-hemorrhage is unknown. Methods: An acute HS rat model was performed to determine the effect of baricitinib on MODS. The activation of JAK/STAT, NF-κB and NLRP3 pathways were analyzed by western blotting in the kidney and liver. Results: We demonstrate here for the first time that treatment with baricitinib (during resuscitation following severe hemorrhage) attenuates the organ injury and dysfunction and the activation of JAK/STAT, NF-κB and NLRP3 pathways caused by HS in the rat. Conclusions: Our results point to a role of the JAK/STAT pathway in the pathophysiology of the organ injury and dysfunction caused by trauma/hemorrhage and indicate that JAK inhibitors, such as baricitinib, may be repurposed for the treatment of the MODS after trauma and/or hemorrhage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Taylor J. Louis ◽  
Ahmad Qasem ◽  
Latifa S. Abdelli ◽  
Saleh A. Naser

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is typically presented with acute symptoms affecting upper and lower respiratory systems. As the current pandemic progresses, COVID-19 patients are experiencing a series of nonspecific or atypical extra-pulmonary complications such as systemic inflammation, hypercoagulability state, and dysregulation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). These manifestations often delay testing, diagnosis, and the urge to seek effective treatment. Although the pathophysiology of these complications is not clearly understood, the incidence of COVID-19 increases with age and the presence of pre-existing conditions. This review article outlines the pathophysiology and clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on extra-pulmonary systems. Understanding the broad spectrum of atypical extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 should increase disease surveillance, restrict transmission, and most importantly prevent multiple organ-system complications.

2022 ◽  
Edward A. Bittner ◽  
Shiliang Alice Cao

Laparoscopic surgery results in physiologic changes that encompass multiple organ systems, with respiratory, cardiovascular and neurologic and splanchnic effects. Insufflation of the peritoneum results in reduced lung volumes, atelectasis, and endobronchial migration of the endotracheal tube. Pneumoperitoneum can result in changes to venous return, cardiac output and blood pressure. Hypercapnia due to carbon dioxide gas used in insufflation can reduce cerebral perfusion pressure. Complications during laparoscopic surgery often occur during port placement and creation of the pneumoperitoneum. Problems include injury to blood vessels during trocar entry, vascular injury in the pneumoperitoneum with limited surgical access, severe bradycardia and arrhythmias due to vagal stimulation from peritoneal stretching, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, gas embolism, and complications associated with steep Trendelenburg positioning. A thorough understanding of the physiologic changes associated with laparoscopic procedures and recognition of potential complications will facilitate in optimal patient care.  This review contains 4 figures, 1 table and 52 references Keywords: Laparoscopy; laparoscopic surgery; carbon dioxide; pneumoperitoneum; capnothorax; general anesthesia; subcutaneous emphysema; insufflation 

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Shasha Li ◽  
Hecheng Zhu ◽  
Ming Zhao ◽  
Weidong Liu ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 is currently spreading throughout the world with a high rate of infection and mortality and poses a huge threat to global public health. COVID-19 primarily manifests as hypoxic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can lead to multiple organ failure. Despite advances in the supportive care approaches, there is still a lack of clinically effective therapies, and there is an urgent need to develop novel strategies to fight this disease. Currently, stem cell therapy and stem cell-derived organoid models have received extensive attention as a new treatment and research method for COVID-19. Here, we discuss how stem cells play a role in the battle against COVID-19 and present a systematic review and prospective of the study on stem cell treatment and organoid models of COVID-19, which provides a reference for the effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Mario Giosuè Balzanelli ◽  
Pietro Distratis ◽  
Rita Lazzaro ◽  
Ernesto D’Ettorre ◽  
Andrea Nico ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), still remains a severe threat. At the time of writing this paper, the second infectious wave has caused more than 280,000 deaths all over the world. Italy was one of the first countries involved, with more than 200,000 people reported as infected and 30,000 deaths. There are no specific treatments for COVID-19 and the vaccine still remains somehow inconclusive. The world health community is trying to define and share therapeutic protocols in early and advanced clinical stages. However, numbers remain critical with a serious disease rate of 14%, ending with sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure (MOF) and vascular and thromboembolic findings. The mortality rate was estimated within 2–3%, and more than double that for individuals over 65 years old; almost one patient in three dies in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Efforts for effective solutions are underway with multiple lines of investigations, and health authorities have reported success treating infected patients with donated plasma from survivors of the illness, the proposed benefit being protective antibodies formed by the survivors. Plasma transfusion, blood and stem cells, either autologous or allograft transplantation, are not novel therapies, and in this short paper, we propose therapeutic autologous plasma and peripheral blood stem cells as a possible treatment for fulminant COVID-19 infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan ◽  
Ranista Tongdee ◽  
Chamard Wongsa ◽  
Anupop Jitmuang ◽  
Torpong Thongngarm

Abstract Background Nodular regenerating hyperplasia (NRH) is the most common liver involvement in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Most patients are asymptomatic with gradually increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mildly elevated transaminase enzymes over the years. We report the first case of fatal liver mass rupture in a CVID patient with probable NRH. Case presentation A 24-year-old man was diagnosed with CVID at the age of 1.25 years. Genetic testing revealed a transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI) mutation. He had been receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy ever since then. The trough level of serum IgG ranged between 750–1200 mg/dL. However, he still had occasional episodes of lower respiratory tract infection until bronchiectasis developed. At 22 years old, computed tomography (CT) chest and abdomen as an investigation for lung infection revealed incidental findings of numerous nodular arterial-enhancing lesions in the liver and mild splenomegaly suggestive of NRH with portal hypertension. Seven months later, he developed sudden hypotension and tense bloody ascites. Emergency CT angiography of the abdomen showed NRH with intrahepatic hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum. Despite successful gel foam embolization, the patient died from prolonged shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusions Although CVID patients with NRH are generally asymptomatic, late complications including portal hypertension, hepatic failure, and hepatic rupture could occur. Therefore, an evaluation of liver function should be included in the regular follow-up of CVID patients.

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