direct acting antiviral
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chun-Han Cheng ◽  
Chia-Ying Chu ◽  
Huan-Lin Chen ◽  
I-Tsung Lin ◽  
Chia-Hsien Wu ◽  

Background and AimsChronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with dysregulation of glucose homeostasis, including insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. However, independent risk factors associated with IR in chronic HCV-infected patients have not been detailly elucidated. Previous data regarding the impact of HCV elimination by direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) on glucose homeostasis is insufficient and controversial. This study aimed to analyze the independent factors associated with IR and to evaluate the changes in glucose homeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients treated with DAAs therapies.MethodsWe screened 704 patients with chronic HCV infection who underwent treatment with interferon-free DAAs. Patients’ baseline characteristics, biochemical and virological data were collected. The outcome measurements were their IR and β-cell function assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method at baseline and 12-weeks post-treatment.ResultsHigh IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5) was observed in 35.1% of the patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, treatment experience, elevated baseline levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and triglyceride, as well as Fibrosis-4 score >3.25 were independently associated with high IR. In patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR), no significant change in mean HOMA-IR was observed from baseline to 12-weeks post-treatment (2.74 ± 2.78 to 2.54 ± 2.20, p = 0.128). We observed a significant improvement in β-cell secretion stress from 121.0 ± 110.1 to 107.6 ± 93.0 (p = 0.015). Subgroup analysis revealed that SVR was associated with a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (5.31 ± 3.39 to 3.68 ± 2.57, p < 0.001), HCV genotype 1 (3.05 ± 3.11 to 2.62 ± 2.05, p = 0.027), and treatment experience (4.00 ± 3.37 to 3.01 ± 2.49, p = 0.039).ConclusionsThere were several independent factors associated with IR in patients with chronic HCV infection, including obesity, treatment experience, high serum ALT and triglyceride levels, as well as advanced hepatic fibrosis. After viral elimination by DAAs, we observed a significant reduction in mean HOMA-IR in patients with baseline high IR, HCV genotype 1, and treatment experience.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262267
Seiichi Mawatari ◽  
Kotaro Kumagai ◽  
Kohei Oda ◽  
Kazuaki Tabu ◽  
Sho Ijuin ◽  

Background The features of hepatitis C virus patients with a sustained virologic response (SVR) who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy are unclear. Methods The study population included 1494 DAA-SVR patients without a history of HCC. The cumulative carcinogenesis rate after the end of treatment (EOT) and factors related to HCC were analyzed. Results Sixty (4.0%) patients developed HCC during a median observation period of 47.6 months. At four years, the cumulative carcinogenesis rate was 4.7%. A Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that age ≥73 years (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.148), male sex (HR: 3.060), hyaluronic acid (HA) ≥75 ng/mL (HR: 3.996), alpha-fetoprotein at EOT (EOT-AFP) ≥5.3 ng/mL (HR: 4.773), and albumin at EOT (EOT-Alb) <3.9 g/dL (HR: 2.305) were associated with HCC development. Especially, EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL was associated with HCC development after 3 years from EOT (HR: 6.237). Among patients who developed HCC, AFP did not increase in patients with EOT-AFP <5.3 ng/mL at the onset of HCC. Of these 5 factors, EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL was scored as 2 points; the others were scored as 1 point. The 4-year cumulative carcinogenesis rate for patients with total scores of 0–2, 3–4, and 5–6 points were 0.6%, 11.9%, and 27.1%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusions EOT-AFP ≥5.3 ng/mL is useful for predicting HCC development after an SVR. However, AFP does not increase in patients with EOT-AFP <5.3 ng/mL at the onset of HCC. The combination of EOT-AFP, age, sex, HA, and EOT-Alb is important for predicting carcinogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Gaurav Tripathi ◽  
Sheetalnath Rooge ◽  
Manisha Yadav ◽  
Babu Mathew ◽  
Nupur Sharma ◽  

Introduction: With the advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for HCV, the cure is achieved at similar rates among HIV–HCV coinfected patients as in HCV mono-infected patients. The present study evaluates host plasma metabolites as putative indicators in predicting the treatment response in baseline HIV–HCV patients.Methods: Non-cirrhotic HIV–HCV (N = 43) coinfected patients were treated with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for 12 weeks. Plasma metabolite profiling of pre- and post-therapy was analyzed in 20/43 patients. Of the 20 selected, 10 (50%) attained the sustained viral response [(SVR) (responders)] as defined by the absence of HCV RNA at 12 weeks after the treatment, and 10 (50%) did not attain the cure for HCV (nonresponders).Results: A total of 563 features were annotated (metabolomic/spectral databases). Before therapy, 39 metabolites differentiated (FC ±1.5, p &lt; 0.05) nonresponders from responders. Of these, 20 upregulated and 19 downregulated were associated with tryptophan metabolism, nicotinamide metabolism, and others. Post therapy, 62 plasma metabolites (12 upregulated and 50 downregulated, FC±1.5, p &lt; 0.05) differentiated nonresponders from responders and highlighted a significant increase in the steroid and histidine metabolism and significant decrease in tryptophan metabolism and ascorbate and pyruvate metabolism in the nonresponders. Based on random forest and multivariate linear regression analysis, the baseline level of N-acetylspermidine (FC &gt; 2, AUC = 0.940, Bfactor = −0.267) and 2-acetolactate (FC &gt; 2, AUC = 0.880, Bfactor = −0.713) significantly differentiated between nonresponders from responders in HIV–HCV coinfected patients and was able to predict the failure of treatment response.Conclusion: Increased baseline levels of N-acetylspermidine and 2-acetolactate levels are associated with the likeliness of failure to attain the cure for HCV in HIV–HCV coinfected patients.

AIDS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Cas J. Isfordink ◽  
Colette Smit ◽  
Anders Boyd ◽  
Marieke J.A. de Regt ◽  
Bart J.A. Rijnders ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Ryoga Hamura ◽  
Shinji Onda ◽  
Yoshihiro Shirai ◽  
Jungo Yasuda ◽  
Koichiro Haruki ◽  

Abstract Background The administration of direct-acting antiviral agents in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C has been shown to improve liver function and long-term prognosis after sustained virological response (SVR) is achieved. However, in patients with portal hypertension (PH) at the time of SVR, PH may persist despite improvement in liver function. Case presentation An 82-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C was treated with direct-acting antiviral agents and achieved SVR. During follow-up, computed tomography revealed a low-density tumor in the left lateral region of the liver with dilation of the left intrahepatic bile duct. Considering the patient’s advanced age and PH persistence with a mild decrease in liver reserve function after SVR, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (PTPE) and partial splenic embolization (PSE) were performed concomitantly. Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy was performed 8 days after the PTPE and PSE. The patient was discharged 8 days after surgery without any postoperative complications. Conclusions Laparoscopic left hemihepatectomy after preoperative management of PH was performed safely in a patient after the elimination of hepatitis C.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e057618
Daniel O’Keefe ◽  
J Gunn ◽  
Kathleen Ryan ◽  
Filip Djordjevic ◽  
Phoebe Kerr ◽  

IntroductionThe advent of direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) means the elimination of HCV is possible but requires sustained effort to achieve. Between 2016 and 2019, 44% of those living with HCV were treated in Australia. However, treatment uptake has declined significantly. In Australia, people who inject drugs (PWID) are the population most at risk of HCV acquisition. Eliminating HCV in Australia will require nuanced understanding of the barriers to HCV treatment experienced by PWID and tailored interventions to address these barriers. The EC-Experience Cohort study aims to explore the barriers and enablers reported by PWID to engagement in HCV care.Methods and analysisThe EC-Experience Cohort study is a prospective cohort of PWID, established in Melbourne, Australia in 2018. Participants are assigned into three study groups: (1) those not currently engaged in HCV testing; (2) those diagnosed with HCV but not currently engaged in treatment and (3) those completed treatment. Participants complete a total of four interviews every 6 months across an 18-month study period. Predictors of experience of key outcome events along the HCV care cascade will be explored over time.Ethics and disseminationEthical approval for the EC-Experience Cohort study was obtained by the Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee in Melbourne, Australia (Project Number: HREC/16/Alfred/164). All eligible participants are assessed for capacity to consent and partake in a thorough informed consent process. Results from the EC-Experience Cohort study will be disseminated via national and international scientific and public health conferences and peer-reviewed journal publications. Data from the EC-Experience Cohort study will improve the current understanding of the barriers to HCV care for PWID and guide the tailoring of service provision for specific subgroups. Understanding the barriers and how to increase engagement in care of PWID is critical to achieve HCV elimination goals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Marko Jukič ◽  
Katarina Kores ◽  
Dušanka Janežič ◽  
Urban Bren

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2 is a virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. This group of viruses commonly causes colds but possesses a tremendous pathogenic potential. In humans, an outbreak of SARS caused by the SARS-CoV virus was first reported in 2003, followed by 2012 when the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) led to an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Moreover, COVID-19 represents a serious socioeconomic and global health problem that has already claimed more than four million lives. To date, there are only a handful of therapeutic options to combat this disease, and only a single direct-acting antiviral, the conditionally approved remdesivir. Since there is an urgent need for active drugs against SARS-CoV-2, the strategy of drug repurposing represents one of the fastest ways to achieve this goal. An in silico drug repurposing study using two methods was conducted. A structure-based virtual screening of the FDA-approved drug database on SARS-CoV-2 main protease was performed, and the 11 highest-scoring compounds with known 3CLpro activity were identified while the methodology was used to report further 11 potential and completely novel 3CLpro inhibitors. Then, inverse molecular docking was performed on the entire viral protein database as well as on the Coronaviridae family protein subset to examine the hit compounds in detail. Instead of target fishing, inverse docking fingerprints were generated for each hit compound as well as for the five most frequently reported and direct-acting repurposed drugs that served as controls. In this way, the target-hitting space was examined and compared and we can support the further biological evaluation of all 11 newly reported hits on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as well as recommend further in-depth studies on antihelminthic class member compounds. The authors acknowledge the general usefulness of this approach for a full-fledged inverse docking fingerprint screening in the future.

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