Adrenaline and hydrogen peroxide have neuromodulatory functions in the brain and peroxide is also formed during reaction of adrenaline. Considerable interest exists in developing electrochemical sensors that can detect their levels in vivo due to their important biochemical roles. Challenges associated with electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide and adrenaline are that the oxidation of these molecules usually requires highly oxidising potentials (beyond 1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl) where electrode damage and biofouling are likely and the signals of adrenaline, hydrogen peroxide and adenosine overlap on most electrode materials. To address these issues we fabricated pyrolysed carbon electrodes coated with oxidised carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Using these electrodes for fast-scan cyclic voltammetric (FSCV) measurements showed that the electrode offers reduced overpotentials compared with graphite and improved resistance to biofouling. Adrenaline oxidises on this electrode at 0.75(±0.1) V and reduces back at −0.2(±0.1) V while hydrogen peroxide oxidation is detected at 0.85(±0.1) V on this electrode. The electrodes are highly sensitive with a sensitivity of 16 nA µM−1 for Adrenaline and 11 nA µM−1 for hydrogen peroxide on an 80 µm2 electrode. They are also suitable to distinguish between adrenaline, hydrogen peroxide and adenosine thus these probes can be used for multimodal detection of analytes.
The development of industries leads to large amount of organic wastewater that contains phenol and dyes. For the treatment of these pollutants, the applications of H2O2 based – AOP have advantages in less pollution, low costs and high efficiency. In order to promote the degradation effect of H2O2, researchers used several methods to strengthen the effect of H2O2 based – AOP. This article mainly reviews the development of catalysts of the strengthened Catalytic Wet Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation (CWPO), Fenton-like and other assistant-H2O2 systems in the degradation of phenol and dyes recent years. Challenges and development directions concerning catalysts in the future are discussed.