acute stroke
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Emily L. Ball ◽  
Gillian E. Mead ◽  
Eugene Y.H. Tang ◽  
Dorota Religa ◽  
Terence J. Quinn ◽  

Tomohisa Nezu ◽  
Naohisa Hosomi ◽  
Shiro Aoki ◽  
Hiromi Nishi ◽  
Masahiro Nakamori ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 315-321
Mythreini B S ◽  
Uthayasankar M.K ◽  
Sumanbabu I.S.S

Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and is now emerging as the commonest preventable life-threatening neurological problem worldwide. It makes an important contribution to morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. The prognosis of acute stroke is determined by a series of factors some of which may be used in the early stages of stroke to predict prognosis and mortality. However, the role of inflammatory markers in predicting functional outcome in stroke remains controversial, Iron and ferritin are known to have an important role in stroke as well as in other disorders. Serum ferritin which is considered as an acute phase reactant has also been used for assessing the severity and prognosis of stroke. Therefore, testing of serum ferritin is useful in identifying high risk patients.1: To study the effect of level of serum ferritin with early neurological deterioration and the outcome in patients of acute stroke. 2: Association of serum ferritin in ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke.50 patients with acute stroke were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Appropriate questionnaire was used to collect the data of patients. Diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by CT or MRI scan of brain and examination was done by Canadian stroke scale at the time of admission. About 5ml of venous blood Sample from cubital vein was collected for measuring serum ferritin levels, it was performed within 48hrs of onset of symptoms by using CLIA method. Neurological assessment was repeated on the day of discharge to assess the clinical improvement and prognosis of the stroke patients.Totally 50 patients of acute stroke were included in our study, majority of the patients are males 35 (70%), and females are 15(30%). Approximately 36% were in the age group of 51-60 years. In this study ischemic stroke was seen in 45 (90%) of the patients and 5 (10%) had hemorrhagic stroke. The serum ferritin levels are normal in 41(82%) and high in 9(18%) of the patients. Canadian stroke scale interpretation on the day of discharge showed 20% of the patient are deteriorated, 66% are in the same status and 14% of the patients are improved clinically. The patients with haemorrhagic stroke had high serum ferritin level 60.0% and ischemic stroke are 13.3%. Those patients with high serum ferritin levels had higher deterioration in Canadian stroke scale (p<0.001). The mean serum ferritin levels are higher in deteriorated patients 199.29% when compared to other status group in Canadian stroke scale.High levels of serum ferritin correlates well with early neurological deterioration of stroke patients. Based on this study finding, that high serum ferritin level within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms of stroke helps to predict the early prognosis. Therefore, testing of serum ferritin is useful in identifying high risk patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cinzia Costa ◽  
Elena Nardi Cesarini ◽  
Paolo Eusebi ◽  
David Franchini ◽  
Paola Casucci ◽  

Introduction: Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) requires long-term treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). However, epidemiology of PSE and long-term compliance with ASM in this population are still unclear. Here we report, through population-level healthcare administrative data, incidence, risk factors, ASM choice, and ASM switch over long-term follow-up.Materials and Methods: This is a population-based retrospective study using Umbria healthcare administrative database. Population consisted of all patients with acute stroke, either ischaemic or hemorrhagic, between 2013 and 2018. ICD-9-CM codes were implemented to identify people with stroke, while PSE was adjudicated according to previously validated algorithm, such as EEG and ≥1 ASM 7 days after stroke.Results: Overall, among 11,093 incident cases of acute stroke (75.9% ischemic), 275 subjects presented PSE, for a cumulative incidence of 2.5%. Patients with PSE were younger (64 vs. 76 years), more frequently presented with hemorrhagic stroke, and had longer hospital stay (15.5 vs. 11.2 days) compared with patients without PSE. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models confirmed that PSE associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer duration of hospital stay. Levetiracetam was the most prescribed ASM (55.3%), followed by valproate and oxcarbazepine. Almost 30% of patients prescribed with these ASMs switched treatment during follow-up, mostly toward non-enzyme-inducing ASMs. About 12% of patients was prescribed ASM polytherapy over follow-up.Conclusions: Post-stroke epilepsy is associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer hospital stay. First ASM is switched every one in three patients, suggesting the need for treatment tailoring in line with secondary prevention.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Faysal Benali ◽  
Lotte J. Stolze ◽  
Anouk D. Rozeman ◽  
Wouter Dinkelaar ◽  
Jonathan M. Coutinho ◽  

Abstract Introduction We investigated the impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting lockdown on reperfusion treatments and door-to-treatment times during the first surge in Dutch comprehensive stroke centers. Furthermore, we studied the association between COVID-19-status and treatment times. Methods We included all patients receiving reperfusion treatment in 17 Dutch stroke centers from May 11th, 2017, until May 11th, 2020. We collected baseline characteristics, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, onset-to-door time (ODT), door-to-needle time (DNT), door-to-groin time (DGT) and COVID-19-status at admission. Parameters during the lockdown (March 15th, 2020 until May 11th, 2020) were compared with those in the same period in 2019, and between groups stratified by COVID-19-status. We used nationwide data and extrapolated our findings to the increasing trend of EVT numbers since May 2017. Results A decline of 14% was seen in reperfusion treatments during lockdown, with a decline in both IVT and EVT delivery. DGT increased by 12 min (50 to 62 min, p-value of < 0.001). Furthermore, median NIHSS-scores were higher in COVID-19 - suspected or positive patients (7 to 11, p-value of 0.004), door-to-treatment times did not differ significantly when stratified for COVID-19-status. Conclusions During the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, a decline in acute reperfusion treatments and a delay in DGT was seen, which indicates a target for attention. It also appeared that COVID-19-positive or -suspected patients had more severe neurologic symptoms, whereas their EVT-workflow was not affected.

Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 98 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-79
Justin A. Sattin ◽  
Winston Chiong ◽  
Richard J. Bonnie ◽  
Matthew P. Kirschen ◽  
James A. Russell ◽  

This position statement briefly reviews the principle of informed consent, the elements of decisional capacity, and how acute stroke may affect this capacity. It further reviews the role of surrogate decision-making, including advance directives, next of kin, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment, and guardianship. In some cases of acute stroke in which the patient lacks decisional capacity and no advance directives or surrogates are available, consent to treatment may be presumed. The document describes the rationale for this position and various considerations regarding its application to IV thrombolysis, neuroendovascular intervention, decompressive craniectomy, and pediatric stroke. The document also reviews consent issues in acute stroke research.

JiaQian Shi ◽  
Hang Wu ◽  
Zheng Dong ◽  
XianXian Liang ◽  
QuanHui Liu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-12
Sangeetha T ◽  
Sudheera Kunduru

Background: Post-stroke, gait and balance are often affected increasing the risk of fall, social isolation and sedentary lifestyle. Proprioceptive training has always been a part of post-stroke rehabilitation which has seen to improve muscle strength, balance and gait. Progressive adaptive physical activity has also shown to improve balance, cardiovascular fitness and gait after stroke. This study aims to compare the effect of proprioceptive training and progressive adaptive physical activity on balance in sub-acute stroke subjects. Method: 30 subacute stroke subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Group A received proprioceptive training while Group B received progressive adaptive physical activity for 30 minutes, 3 times a week for eight weeks. Subjects in both the groups were assessed for balance using Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test prior to the intervention and post-intervention. Result: Both the groups showed significant improvement in the pre to post FRT and BBS scores (p<0.001). Post-intervention, when compared between groups, Group A showed better improvement than Group B on the FRT scores (p<0.001) but no difference was seen in the BBS scores (p value>0.05). Conclusion: Proprioceptive training is found to be more effective than the progressive adaptive physical activity in improving balance among sub-acute stroke subjects. Key words: Stroke, Balance, proprioceptive training, progressive adaptive physical activity.

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