Stroke Patients
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yongxin Li ◽  
Zeyun Yu ◽  
Ping Wu ◽  
Jiaxu Chen

Abstract Introduction Stroke is one of the leading causes of substantial disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown brain functional and structural alterations in adults with stroke. However, few studies have examined the longitudinal reorganization in whole-brain structural networks in stroke. Methods Here, we applied graph theoretical analysis to investigate the longitudinal topological organization of white matter networks in 20 ischemic stroke patients with a one-month interval between two timepoints. Two sets of clinical scores, Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA) and neurological deficit scores (NDS), were assessed for all patients on the day the image data were collected. Results The stroke patients exhibited significant increases in FMA scores and significant reductions in DNS between the two timepoints. All groups exhibited small-world organization (σ  >  1) in the brain structural network, including a high clustering coefficient (γ  >  1) and a low normalized characteristic path length (λ ≈ 1). However, compared to healthy controls, stroke patients showed significant decrease in nodal characteristics at the first timepoint, primarily in the right supplementary motor area, right middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobe, right postcentral gyrus and left posterior cingulate gyrus. Longitudinal results demonstrated that altered nodal characteristics were partially restored one month later. Additionally, significant correlations between the nodal characteristics of the right supplementary motor area and the clinical scale scores (FMA and NDS) were observed in stroke patients. Similar behavioral-neuroimaging correlations were found in the right inferior parietal lobe. Conclusion Altered topological properties may be an effect of stroke, which can be modulated during recovery. The longitudinal results and the neuroimaging-behavioral relationship may provide information for understanding brain recovery from stroke. Future studies should detect whether observed changes in structural topological properties can predict the recovery of daily cognitive function in stroke.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Erendira G. Boss ◽  
Ferdinand O. Bohmann ◽  
Björn Misselwitz ◽  
Manfred Kaps ◽  
Tobias Neumann-Haefelin ◽  

Abstract Background Stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) require endovascular therapy (EVT) provided by comprehensive stroke centers (CSC). One strategy to achieve fast stroke symptom ‘onset to treatment’ times (OTT) is the preclinical selection of patients with severe stroke for direct transport to CSC. Another is the optimization of interhospital transfer workflow. Our aim was to investigate the dynamics of the OTT of ‘drip-and-ship’ patients as well as the current ‘door-in-door-out’ time (DIDO) and its determinants at representative regional German stroke units. Methods We determined the numbers of all EVT treatments, ‘drip-and-ship’ and ‘direct-to-center’ patients and their median OTT from the mandatory quality assurance registry of the federal state of Hesse, Germany (2012–2019). Additionally, we captured process time stamps from primary stroke centers (PSC) in a consecutive registry of patients referred for EVT in our regional stroke network over a 3 months period. Results Along with an increase of the EVT rate, the proportion of drip-and-ship patients grew steadily from 19.4% in 2012 to 31.3% in 2019. The time discrepancy for the median OTT between ‘drip-and-ship’ and ‘direct-to-center’ patients continuously declined from 173 to 74 min. The largest share of the DIDO (median 92, IQR 69–110) is spent with the organization of EVT and consecutive patient transfer. Conclusions ‘Drip-and-ship’ patients are an important and growing proportion of stroke patients undergoing EVT. The discrepancy in OTT for EVT between ‘drip-and-ship’ and ‘direct-to-center’ patients has been reduced considerably. Further optimization of the DIDO primarily aiming at the processes after the detection of LVO is urgently needed to improve stroke patient care.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089198872110361
Akin Ojagbemi ◽  
Toyin Bello ◽  
Mayowa Owolabi ◽  
Olusegun Baiyewu

Background: There is limited information on new onset poststroke dementia (NPSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We estimated incidence, cumulative incidence, risk factors and outcome of NPSD at 1 year in Nigerian survivors of a first-ever stroke. Methods: Hospital-based prospective observational study. Assessments for global cognition, learning, memory, executive and activities of daily life (ADL) functioning were conducted at 3 poststroke timepoints (Baseline, 3- and 12 months). NPSD was ascertained according to the “National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) criteria.” Outcomes were assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), center for epidemiologic studies depression scale (CES-D 10), health related quality of life in stroke patients (HRQOLISP-26) and caregivers strain index (CSI). Results: Among 144 stroke survivors who were free of dementia at baseline, we found a 1-year cumulative incidence of 4.52% (95% C.I = 3.20, 6.39). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, diabetes was associated with NPSD (Hazard Ratio = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.02, 4.35). NPSD at 3 months was independently associated with motor decline [Mean difference (MD) in mRS = 1.6, 95% C.I = 0.9, 2.3)], depression (MD in CES-D = 2.9, 95% C.I = 0.3, 5.4), caregivers burden (MD in CSI = 1.2, 95% C.I = 0.5, 1.8), and poor quality of life (MD in HRQOLISP-26 = −11.2, 95% C.I = −15.7, −6.8) at 1 year. Conclusion: Approximately 4.5% of stroke survivors in Nigeria had NPSD at 1 year. Diabetes, which can be prevented, represent a primary prevention target for NPSD and its consequences in SSA.

Nayara Karina Ferreira Pereira ◽  
Gabriele Natane de Medeiros Cirne ◽  
Fábio Ricardo de Oliveira Galvão ◽  
Maria Eloiza Costa ◽  
Wellington dos Santos Lima Júnior ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (Supplement_2) ◽  
Natacha Oliveira ◽  
Vitor Maranha ◽  
Nuno Cruz ◽  
Filipe Carvalho ◽  
Jorge Lains ◽  

Abstract Background In Daily Living Activities, the ‘Sit-to-Stand’ movement is essential to carry out several tasks, many of them starting from sitting and needing to get up. This movement stimulates a set of important muscles in the context of physical-motor activity and lower limb rehabilitation procedures. This work presents an interactive biomechanical device, based on two instrumented arms, to monitor the support force and arms angle, necessary to perform the ‘Sit-to-Stand’ movement. Methods The prototype incorporates aluminum support and two tubular arms instrumented with eight strain gauges, connected to a NI data board and a PC, allowing the quantification of the force applied during the sit-to-stand performance as well as the angle of the arms. A Labview user interface interacts with the user and the data can be visualized and recorded during the time. Results The device has been tested with a group of healthy volunteers, performing a sit-to-stand test protocol from a chair. In all the tests, the force applied, and the hand position have been quantified during the time necessary to perform the task. Conclusions The biomechanical device provides the quantification and identification of the harm force and position during the sit-to-stand movement. The system can be used as a force-time/position-time analysis, providing the analysis of recovery in patients who are undergoing physical-motor rehabilitation procedures of the lower limbs, such as post-stroke patients and institutionalized geriatric populations. The device can also allow biofeedback stimuli in rehabilitation activities through a graphical computer interface, such as a game.

2021 ◽  
Vol 92 ◽  
pp. 17-21
Hiroki Tanaka ◽  
Manabu Nankaku ◽  
Takayuki Kikuchi ◽  
Hidehisa Nishi ◽  
Toru Nishikawa ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Anna Coppers ◽  
Jens Carsten Möller ◽  
Detlef Marks

Abstract Background The short form of the Stroke Impact Scale (SF-SIS) consists of eight questions and provides an overall index of health-related quality of life after stroke. The goal of the study was the evaluation of construct validity, reliability and responsiveness of the SF-SIS for the use in German-speaking stroke patients in rehabilitation. Methods The SF-SIS, the Stroke Impact Scale 2.0 (SIS 2.0), EQ-5D-5L, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and de Morton Mobility Index were assessed in 150 inpatients after stroke, with a second measurement two weeks later for the analyses of responsiveness. In 55 participants, the test–retest-reliability was assessed one week after the first measurement. The study was designed following the recommendations of the COSMIN initiative. Results The correlations of the SF-SIS with the SIS 2.0 (ρ = 0.90), as well as the EQ-5D-5L (ρ = 0.79) were high, as expected. There was adequate discriminatory ability of the SF-SIS index between patients who were less and more severely affected by stroke, as assessed by the NIHSS. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor structure of the SF-SIS explaining 59.9% of the total variance, providing better model fit in the confirmatory factor analysis than the one-factorial structure. Analyses of test–retest-reliability showed an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88 (95% CI 0.75–0.94). Hypotheses concerning responsiveness were not confirmed due to lower correlations between the assessments change scores. Conclusion Results of this analysis of the SF-SIS’s psychometric properties are matching with the validity analysis of the English original version, confirming the high correlations with the Stroke Impact Scale and the EQ-5D-5L. Examination of structural validity did not confirm the presumed unidimensionality of the scale and found evidence of an underlying two-factor solution with a physical and cognitive domain. Sufficient test–retest reliability and internal consistency were found. In addition, this study provides first results for the responsiveness of the German version. Trial registration The study was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register. Trial registration number: DRKS00011933, date of registration: 07.04.2017

2021 ◽  
Vol 91 ◽  
pp. 378-382
Farhad Assarzadegan ◽  
Foroogh Mohammadi ◽  
Behnam Safarpour Lima ◽  
Behnam Mansouri ◽  
Seyed Hossein Aghamiri ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yong-Hui Zhang ◽  
Yu-Chen Wang ◽  
Gong-Wei Hu ◽  
Xiao-Qin Ding ◽  
Xiao-Hua Shen ◽  

BackgroundSomatosensory impairments and pain are common symptoms following stroke. However, the condition of perception and pain threshold for pressure stimuli and the factors that can influence this in individuals with stroke are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in pressure pain threshold (PPT) and positive somatosensory signs for pressure stimuli, and explore the effects of joint pain, motor function, and activities of daily living (ADL) on pain threshold in post-stroke patients.DesignA cross-sectional study.MethodsA total of 60 participants with stroke were recruited, and their pain condition, motor functions, and ADL were evaluated by the Fugl-Meyer assessment of joint pain scale, motor function scale, and Barthel index, respectively. PPTs in eight tested points at the affected and unaffected sides were assessed.ResultsSignificant differences in PPTs were found between male and female patients in all measured muscles (p < 0.05). Positive somatosensory signs for pressure stimuli, including hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, were frequently found at the affected side, particularly in the extremity muscles, but such signs were not significantly influenced by gender (p > 0.05). More equal PPTs between both sides and relatively lower PPTs at the affected side in the trunk and medial gastrocnemius muscles (p < 0.05) were observed in patients with less pain, better motor functions, and ADL.ConclusionGender differences widely exist in post-stroke survivors either at the affected or unaffected side, which are multifactorial. Sensory loss and central and/or peripheral sensitization, such as hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia for pressure stimuli, caused by a brain lesion are common signs in male and female stroke patients. Moreover, patients who are in a better condition show a more symmetrical pain sensitivity between both sides in the trunk and in female lower extremities, indicating the bidirectional improvement of somatosensory abnormalities caused by a possible neural plasticity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Thomas R. Meinel ◽  
Angela Eggimann ◽  
Kristina Brignoli ◽  
Kerstin Wustmann ◽  
Eric Buffle ◽  

Background: To compare the diagnostic yield of echocardiography and cardiovascular MRI (CMR) to detect structural sources of embolism, in patients with ischemic stroke with a secondary analysis of non-stroke populations.Methods and Results: We searched MEDLINE/Embase (from 01.01.2000 to 24.04.2021) for studies including CMR to assess prespecified sources of embolism. Comparison included transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography. Two authors independently screened studies, extracted data and assessed bias using the QUADAS-2 tool. Estimates of diagnostic yield were reported and pooled. Twenty-seven studies with 2,525 patients were included in a study-level analysis. Most studies had moderate to high risk of bias. Persistent foramen ovale, complex aortic plaques, left ventricular and left atrial thrombus were the most common pathologies. There was no difference in the yield of left ventricular thrombus detection between both modalities for stroke populations (4 studies), but an increased yield of CMR in non-stroke populations (28.1 vs. 16.0%, P < 0.001, 10 studies). The diagnostic yield in stroke patients for detection of persistent foramen ovale was lower in CMR compared to transoesophageal echocardiography (29.3 vs. 53.7%, P < 0.001, 5 studies). For both echocardiography and CMR the clinical impact of the management consequences derived from many of the diagnostic findings remained undetermined in the identified studies.Conclusions: Echocardiography and CMR seem to have similar diagnostic yield for most cardioaortic sources of embolism except persistent foramen ovale and left ventricular thrombus. Randomized controlled diagnostic trials are necessary to understand the impact on the management and potential clinical benefits of the assessment of structural cardioaortic stroke sources.Registration: PROSPERO: CRD42020158787.

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