fire behaviour
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Fire ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Kelsy Gibos ◽  
Kyle Fitzpatrick ◽  
Scott Elliott

Wildland firefighters continue to die in the line of duty. Flammable landscapes intersect with bold but good-intentioned doers and trigger entrapment—a situation where personnel is unexpectedly caught in fire behaviour-related, life-threatening positions where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate, or compromised. We often document, share and discuss these stories, but many are missed, especially when the situation is a near miss. Entrapment continues to be a significant cause of wildland firefighter deaths. Why do we still not know how to prevent them? We review a selection of entrapment reports courtesy of the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Centre (WFLLC) and focus on human factors involved in entrapment rather than the specifics of fire behaviour and the environment. We found that in order for operational supervisors to make more informed strategic and tactical decisions, a more holistic and complete trend analysis is necessary of the existing database of entrapment incidents. Analysis of the entrapment data would allow training to include a more fulsome understanding of when suppression resources are applying strategies and tactics that might expose them to a higher likelihood of entrapment. Operational supervisors would make more informed decisions as to where and when to deploy resources in critical situations in order to reduce the exposure to unnecessary risk of entrapment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 250 ◽  
pp. 113419
Shengxin Fan ◽  
Yao Zhang ◽  
Kang Hai Tan

2021 ◽  
Danny Hopkin ◽  
Michael Spearpoint ◽  
Ian Fu ◽  
Carmen Gorska ◽  
Harald Krenn ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 169 ◽  
pp. 108422
Andi Su ◽  
Ke Jiang ◽  
Yating Liang ◽  
Ou Zhao

2021 ◽  
pp. 788-800
António P. C. Duarte ◽  
Inês C. Rosa ◽  
Mário R. T. Arruda ◽  
João P. Firmo ◽  
João R. Correia

2021 ◽  
Anna Sandinge ◽  
Per Blomqvist ◽  
Lars Schiøtt Sørensen ◽  
Anne Dederichs

AbstractAs material age, the durability, strength, and other mechanical properties are impacted. The lifespan of a material generally decreases when exposed to weathering conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, and light. It is important to have knowledge of how materials age and how the material properties are affected. Regarding materials´ fire behaviour and the effect of ageing on these properties, the knowledge is limited. The research questions of the current work are: Are the fire properties of composite materials affected by ageing? And if so, how is it affected? The study is on material at Technology Readiness Level 9 (TRL). In this study, three composite fibre laminates developed for marine applications were exposed to accelerated ageing. Two different ageing conditions were selected, thermal ageing with an increased temperature of 90°C and moisture ageing in a moderately increased temperature of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Samples were collected after one, two and four weeks of ageing. The reaction-to-fire properties after ageing was evaluated using the ISO 5660–1 cone calorimeter and the EN ISO 5659–2 smoke chamber with FTIR gas analysis. The test results showed that the fire behaviour was affected. Two of the composite laminates, both phenolic/basalt composites, showed a deteriorated fire behaviour from the thermal ageing and the third composite laminate, a PFA/glass fibre composite, showed an improved fire behaviour both for thermal and moisture ageing. The smoke toxicity was affected by the accelerated ageing, especially for the PFA/glass fibre composite that showed a higher production of CO and HCN, both for the thermal aged and the moisture aged samples.

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