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Fire ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Kelsy Gibos ◽  
Kyle Fitzpatrick ◽  
Scott Elliott

Wildland firefighters continue to die in the line of duty. Flammable landscapes intersect with bold but good-intentioned doers and trigger entrapment—a situation where personnel is unexpectedly caught in fire behaviour-related, life-threatening positions where planned escape routes or safety zones are absent, inadequate, or compromised. We often document, share and discuss these stories, but many are missed, especially when the situation is a near miss. Entrapment continues to be a significant cause of wildland firefighter deaths. Why do we still not know how to prevent them? We review a selection of entrapment reports courtesy of the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Centre (WFLLC) and focus on human factors involved in entrapment rather than the specifics of fire behaviour and the environment. We found that in order for operational supervisors to make more informed strategic and tactical decisions, a more holistic and complete trend analysis is necessary of the existing database of entrapment incidents. Analysis of the entrapment data would allow training to include a more fulsome understanding of when suppression resources are applying strategies and tactics that might expose them to a higher likelihood of entrapment. Operational supervisors would make more informed decisions as to where and when to deploy resources in critical situations in order to reduce the exposure to unnecessary risk of entrapment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 235-242
Tiurniari Purba ◽  
Irene Svinarky

Community Service (PKM) aims to foster housewives in Citra Laguna Housing, Batam. More than 50 percent of the housewives in this housing simply carry out the profession as a housewife without any other activities. Meanwhile, complaints about the inadequacy of household needs are very high. They want extra money to make ends meet. Through this PKM, the implementation method forms direct training and practice on making homemade ice cream products and selling them online or e-commerce. Implementation is carried out twice per meeting. First, fostering participants and practice on how to make ice cream, which was represented by 15 participants. Second, teach and practice buying and selling online through internet media such as through Facebook, Instagram, and others (e-commerce which is familiar among housewives). The results during the two meetings are as follows: 1. Housewives mastered how to make ice cream products with satisfactory results. 2. Housewives know how to download images of products they want to sell in common marketing languages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Damaris Schmid ◽  
Dario Staehelin ◽  
Andreas Bucher ◽  
Mateusz Dolata ◽  
Gerhard Schwabe

Conversational agents (CA) have drawn increasing interest from HCI research. They have become popular in different aspects of our lives, for example, in the form of chatbots as the primary point of contact when interacting with an insurance company online. Additionally, CA find their way into collaborative settings in education, at work, or financial advisory. Researchers and practitioners are searching for ways to enhance the customer's experience in service encounters by deploying CA. Since competence is an important treat of a financial advisor, they only accept CA in their interaction with clients if it does not harm their impression on the client. However, we do not know how the social presence of the CA affects this perceived competence. We explore this by evaluating three prototypes with different social presences. For this, we conducted a video-based online survey. In contrast to prior studies focusing on single human-computer interaction, our study explores CA in a dyadic setting of two humans and one CA. First, our results support the Computers-Are-Social-Actors paradigm as the CA with a strong social presence was perceived as more competent than the other two designs. Second, our data show a positive correlation between CA's and advisor's competence. This implies a positive impact of the CA on the service encounter as the CA and advisor can be seen as a competent team.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-37
Adrian Currie

Abstract Experimental archaeology is often understood both as testing hypotheses about processes shaping the archaeological record and as generating tacit knowledge. Considering lithic technologies, I examine the relationship between these conceptions. Experimental archaeology is usefully understood via ‘maker’s knowledge’: archaeological experiments generate embodied know-how enabling archaeological hypotheses to be grasped and challenged, further well-positioning archaeologists to generate integrated interpretations. Finally, experimental archaeology involves ‘material speculation’: the constraints and affordances of archaeologists and their materials shape productive exploration of the capacities of objects and human skill in ways relevant to archaeological questions.

2022 ◽  
Yuko Usui ◽  
Kazuhiro Kosugi ◽  
Yohei Nishiguchi ◽  
Tomofumi Miura ◽  
Daisuke Fujisawa ◽  

Abstract Purpose Many cancer patients with minor children experience difficulty when talking about their illness with their children. The aim of this study is to investigate the parenting experiences of cancer patients with minor children and their conversations about the possibility of death. Methods A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted between April and May 2019. Cancer patients with minor children were recruited from among an online peer support group called “Cancer Parents”. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their experiences talking about their illness with their children. The participants were classified into those who disclosed their cancer to their children (“disclosed group”), and those who didn’t disclose (“undisclosed group”). The association between whether they talked with their children about their cancer and their conversations about the possibility of death were examined. Results A total of 370 participants were analyzed (80.8% female, median age 43.0 years). The disclosed group (n = 274, 74.1%) wanted to know what their child felt than the undisclosed group (p < 0.001). The undisclosed group didn’t want their children to see their suffering (p = 0.002) and didn’t know how to explain their disease condition ( p < 0.002). Both the disclosed (42.1%) and undisclosed (6.5%) groups told their children about the possibility of death. Conclusion This study showed the disclosed group wanted to know their children’s feelings and they tended to have a conversation about the possibility of death with their children, compared to the undisclosed group.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Iair Arcavi

Studying invisible objects in space that are hundreds of millions of light years away may sound impossible. But, in recent years, astronomers have developed a new way to investigate a type of invisible and distant objects—super-massive black holes. Black holes are the most densely packed objects in the Universe. When stars get close to super-massive black holes they can be torn apart, which produces a relatively brief but informative flash of light. These star-destroying events can help us to discover the locations of the most massive black holes in the Universe, but only if we know how to find and interpret them. In this article, we will discuss different ways we can “see” black holes, and particularly what we do and do not yet understand about stars getting “tidally disrupted” by them. Light YearThe distance light travels in a year, which is 5,878,625,370,000 miles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-03
Umar Farooq Baba

The COVID-19 pandemic changed us individually as well as our routines, goals, and motives. Rightly so, some changes may last longer. Importantly, the pandemic has made us understand several lessons, and has tried to enhance our positive perspective regarding life and its requirements. We came to know how quickly we are capable of adapting to changes. These adjustments proved beyond doubt that there’s not much in life that is truly indispensable. We are practising self-care in a multitude of ways. We might not have thought of our power of resilience. Again, mental health took over as an epicentre of overall wellbeing, reminding us of the power of ‘mind matters’ over ‘money matters’. The health sector disparities and unpreparedness to combat any sort of pandemic situation surfaced not only in resource-limited countries like ours but the uneasiness of the developed world became exposed. The pandemic had been a harsh learning experience for all of us, irrespective of our position in the spectrum.

2022 ◽  
Daniele Fanelli

Scientists' ability to integrate diverse forms of evidence and evaluate how well they can explain and predict phenomena, in other words, $\textit{to know how much they know}$, struggles to keep pace with technological innovation. Central to the challenge of extracting knowledge from data is the need to develop a metric of knowledge itself. A candidate metric of knowledge, $K$, was recently proposed by the author. This essay further advances and integrates that proposal, by developing a methodology to measure its key variable, symbolized with the Greek letter $\tau$ ("tau"). It will be shown how a $\tau$ can represent the description of any phenomenon, any theory to explain it, and any methodology to study it, allowing the knowledge about that phenomenon to be measured with $K$.To illustrate potential applications, the essay calculates $\tau$ and $K$ values of: logical syllogisms and proofs, mathematical calculations, empirical quantitative knowledge, statistical model selection problems, including how to correct for "forking paths" and "P-hacking" biases, randomised controlled experiments, reproducibility and replicability, qualitative analyses via process tracing, and mixed quantitative and qualitative evidence.Whilst preliminary in many respects, these results suggest that $K$ theory offers a meaningful understanding of knowledge, which makes testable metascientific predictions, and which may be used to analyse and integrate qualitative and quantitative evidence to tackle complex problems.

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