gas analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mladen Šolić ◽  
Danijela Šantić ◽  
Stefanija Šestanović ◽  
Grozdan Kušpilić ◽  
Frano Matić ◽  

The mechanisms responsible for the development of various structural and functional features of the microbial food web (MFW) and their dynamics at spatial and temporal scales, which are important for predicting their responses to future environmental changes, are largely unknown. More than 3000 datasets of environmental and microbial variables collected over a decade on a seasonal and large spatial scale in the Adriatic Sea were analyzed. The sets of environmental variables were classified into four clusters (representing different environmental states) using Neural Gas analysis and the differences in MFW structure between the clusters were analyzed. Different variants of MFW evolve in the different clusters in terms of the abundance of MFW components, their ratios, growth and grazing rates, predator preference in prey selection, the strength of predator-prey interaction, and the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up control. However, these clusters are neither spatially nor temporally fixed; rather, the area studied represents a mosaic of different environmental conditions that alternate from one state to another on a time scale. In each of the environmental states, a distinct structure of MFW develops that shows consistent and repeatable changes that strictly follow the switching in environmental conditions from one state to another.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
Jeong-Min Lee ◽  
Ah-Won Sung ◽  
Han-Joon Lee ◽  
Joong-Hyun Song ◽  
Kun-Ho Song

A 14-year-old neutered male British shorthair cat presented with a 21-day history of persistent erection and dysuria, along with overgrooming of the perineal region. Mild palpation induced pain and rigid corpora cavernosa with flaccid glans were observed during physical examination. Ultrasonography of the penis did not detect significant blood flow in the penile cavernosal artery. The drawing of aspirate blood from cavernosal bodies for gas analysis was impossible because of the anatomically small penis size of cats. Conservative management, including topical steroid ointment, lidocaine gel, gabapentin, and diazepam, was prescribed for supportive management. The clinical signs resolved, and ultrasonographic examination of the penis revealed no abnormalities. The cat remains clinically well without recurrence during the 6 months after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-ischemic priapism in a cat.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 805
Jakub Matusiak ◽  
Urszula Maciołek ◽  
Małgorzata Kosińska-Pezda ◽  
Dariusz Sternik ◽  
Jolanta Orzeł ◽  

The main purpose of the research was to obtain and study hybrid materials based on three different nano-oxides commonly used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries: Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO, with the natural bioactive polysaccharide fucoidan. Since the mentioned oxides are largely utilized by industry, there is no doubt that the presented studies are important from an environmental point of view. On the basis of the textural studies (dynamic light scattering DLS, low temperature nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction analysis XRD, scanning electron microscopy SEM) it was proved that the properties of the hybrid materials differ from the pure components of the system. Moreover, the advanced thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DSC) combined with the evolved gas analysis using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectrometry were applied to describe the thermal decomposition of fucoidan, oxides and hybrid materials. It was found that the interactions between the polymer and the oxides results in the formation of the hybrid materials due to the functionalization of the nanoparticles surface, and that their thermal stability increased when compared to the pure substrates. Such findings definitely fill the literature void regarding the fucoidan based hybrid materials and help the industrial formulators in the preparation of new products.

Chemosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Guochao Qian ◽  
Jin Hu ◽  
Shan Wang ◽  
Weiju Dai ◽  
Qu Zhou

Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is recognized as one of the most reliable methods in transformer fault diagnosis technology. In this paper, three characteristic gases of transformer oil (CO, C2H4, and CH4) were used in conjunction with a Cr-decorated InN monolayer according to first principle calculations. The adsorption performance of Cr–InN for these three gases were studied from several perspectives such as adsorption structures, adsorption energy, electron density, density of state, and band gap structure. The results revealed that the Cr–InN monolayer had good adsorption performance with CO and C2H4, while the band gap of the monolayer slightly changed after the adsorption of CO and C2H4. Additionally, the adsorption property of the Cr–InN monolayer on CH4 was acceptable and a significant response was simultaneously generated. This paper provides the first insights regarding the possibility of Cr-doped InN monolayers for the detection of gases dissolved in oil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Meenu Pandey ◽  
Mark D. Lyttle ◽  
Katrina Cathie ◽  
Alasdair Munro ◽  
Thomas Waterfield ◽  

Abstract Background Point-of-care testing (POCT) is diagnostic testing performed at or near to the site of the patient. Understanding the current capacity, and scope, of POCT in this setting is essential in order to respond to new research evidence which may lead to wide implementation. Methods A cross-sectional online survey study of POCT use was conducted between 6th January and 2nd February 2020 on behalf of two United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland-based paediatric research networks (Paediatric Emergency Research UK and Ireland, and General and Adolescent Paediatric Research UK and Ireland). Results In total 91/109 (83.5%) sites responded, with some respondents providing details for multiple units on their site based on network membership (139 units in total). The most commonly performed POCT were blood sugar (137/139; 98.6%), urinalysis (134/139; 96.4%) and blood gas analysis (132/139; 95%). The use of POCT for Influenza/Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (45/139; 32.4%, 41/139; 29.5%), C-Reactive Protein (CRP) (13/139; 9.4%), Procalcitonin (PCT) (2/139; 1.4%) and Group A Streptococcus (5/139; 3.6%) and was relatively low. Obstacles to the introduction of new POCT included resources and infrastructure to support test performance and quality assurance. Conclusion This survey demonstrates significant consensus in POCT practice in the UK and Ireland but highlights specific inequity in newer biomarkers, some which do not have support from national guidance. A clear strategy to overcome the key obstacles of funding, evidence base, and standardising variation will be essential if there is a drive toward increasing implementation of POCT.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 485
Dominik Berndt ◽  
Josef Muggli ◽  
Robert Heckel ◽  
Mohd Fuad Rahiman ◽  
Matthias Lindner ◽  

Gas concentration monitoring is essential in industrial or life science areas in order to address safety-relevant or process-related questions. Many of the sensors used in this context are based on the principle of thermal conductivity. The 3ω-method is a very accurate method to determine the thermal properties of materials. It has its origin in the thermal characterization of thin solid films. To date, there have been very few scientific investigations using this method to determine the thermal properties of gases and to apply it to gas measurement technology. In this article, we use two exemplary gases (H2 and CO2) for a systematical investigation of this method in the context of gas analysis. To perform our experiments, we use a robust, reliable sensing element that is already well established in vacuum measurement technology. This helix-shaped thin wire of tungsten exhibits high robustness against chemical and mechanical influences. Our setup features a compact measurement environment, where sensor operation and data acquisition are integrated into a single device. The experimental results show a good agreement with a simplified analytical model and FEM simulations. The sensor exhibits a lower detection limit of 0.62% in the case of CO2, and only 0.062% in case the of H2 at an excitation frequency of 1Hz. This is one of the lowest values reported in literature for thermal conductivity H2 sensors.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Dong Xing ◽  
Li Chen ◽  
Lantao Wang ◽  
Jing Jin ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) is widely used in the treatment of thoracic cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a non-rebreather mask (NRBM) and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with radiation pneumonia complicated with respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized controlled study. Patients admitted to the EICU of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University were selected and divided into NRBM and HFNC group. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal volume, respiratory rates and the cases of patients receiving invasive assisted ventilation were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after admission. RESULTS: (1) The PaO2/FiO2, respiratory rates, and tidal volume between the two groups at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h were different, with F values of 258.177, 294.121, and 134.372, all P< 0.01. These indicators were different under two modes of oxygenation, with F values of 40.671, 168.742, and 55.353, all P< 0.01, also varied with time, with an F value of 7.480, 9.115, and 12.165, all P< 0.01. (2) The incidence of trachea intubation within 72 h between HFNC and NRBM groups (23 [37.1%] vs. 34 [54.0%], P< 0.05). The transition time to mechanical ventilation in the HFNC and NRBM groups (55.3 ± 3.2 h vs. 45.9 ± 3.6 h, P< 0.05). (3) The risk of intubation in patients with an APACHE-II score > 23 was 2.557 times than score ⩽ 23, and the risk of intubation in the NRBM group was 1.948 times more than the HFNC group (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with the NRBM, HFNC can improve the oxygenation state of patients with radiation pneumonia complicated with respiratory failure in a short time, and reduce the incidence of trachea intubation within 72 h.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Shiro Amanai ◽  
Tomonari Harada ◽  
Kazuki Kagami ◽  
Kuniko Yoshida ◽  
Toshimitsu Kato ◽  

AbstractExercise intolerance is a primary manifestation in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and is associated with abnormal hemodynamics and a poor quality of life. Two multiparametric scoring systems have been proposed to diagnose HFpEF. This study sought to determine the performance of the H2FPEF and HFA-PEFF scores for predicting exercise capacity and echocardiographic findings of intracardiac pressures during exercise in subjects with dyspnea on exertion referred for bicycle stress echocardiography. In a subset, simultaneous expired gas analysis was performed to measure the peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Patients with HFpEF (n = 83) and controls without HF (n = 104) were enrolled. The H2FPEF score was obtainable for all patients while the HFA-PEFF score could not be calculated for 23 patients (feasibility 88%). Both H2FPEF and HFA-PEFF scores correlated with a higher E/e′ ratio (r = 0.49 and r = 0.46), lower systolic tricuspid annular velocity (r =  − 0.44 and =  − 0.24), and lower cardiac output (r =  − 0.28 and r =  − 0.24) during peak exercise. Peak VO2 and exercise duration decreased with an increase in H2FPEF scores (r =  − 0.40 and r =  − 0.32). The H2FPEF score predicted a reduced aerobic capacity (AUC 0.71, p = 0.0005), but the HFA-PEFF score did not (p = 0.07). These data provide insights into the role of the H2FPEF and HFA-PEFF scores for predicting exercise intolerance and abnormal hemodynamics in patients presenting with exertional dyspnea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Anna Micheluz ◽  
Eva Mariasole Angelin ◽  
Julia Sawitzki ◽  
Marisa Pamplona

AbstractUnderstanding the degradation of plastic materials is a big challenge for curators, conservators and conservation scientists in museums worldwide aiming to preserve their collections due to the variety of formulations of synthetic polymers and pigments. The conservation of polyurethane (PUR) based objects is challenging because they can suffer from extensive degradation. Particularly PUR elastomers can degrade shortly after their production, as occurred to the mask of the Japanese robot SAYA, which within 8 years suffered from two large tears, discoloration and stickiness. This research aims at studying the degradation phenomena of the androids’ synthetic skin. Better knowledge of the chemical composition of the mask and the chemical and physical decay will contribute to planning a suitable stabilization treatment. Within a multi-analytical approach, colorimetric and microscopic investigations highlighted discolored areas, which showed further color changes within a five months monitoring campaign, confirming the instability of the material likely due to ongoing degradation. Raman microscopy allowed the identification of Pigment White 6 (titanium dioxide TiO2) in the anatase form, known to promote the photosensitivity of PUR substrates towards ultraviolet (UV) light. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy identified the PUR composition of the mask, the presence of phthalates as plasticizers and suggested the formation of quinone chromophores in the polymer structure as a result of photo-oxidation, possibly responsible for the mask yellowing. Evolved gas analysis-mass spectrometry (EGA-MS) and double-shot-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/Py–GC/MS) analyses support the characterization of the formulation of the mask as being made of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) PUR ether elastomer. Plasticizers in high concentration, mainly diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and the UV stabilizer Tinuvin 328 were also detected. In addition, the presence of styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) could also contribute to the mask’s chemical instability. More amount of UV stabilizer and phthalates were detected at the surface (contributing to its stickiness) than in the inner core. The degradation of the mask results from the light susceptibility of MDI PUR ether and SAN, as well as the higher photochemical activity of anatase. The mask was transferred on to a mannequin and placed in the storage area to prevent light exposure and photo-oxidation. As loose edges had to be stabilized, tests were conducted and adhesive stripes glued with a PUR dispersion were selected for keeping the head’s shape. The novelty of this study is the implementation of conservation science on the study of androids with PUR elastomeric components in robotic collections, which are becoming increasingly popular in technical museums, however still seldomly studied.

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