Reverse Osmosis
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Desalination ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 526 ◽  
pp. 115541
Author(s):  
Luigi Gurreri ◽  
Mariagiorgia La Cerva ◽  
Jordi Moreno ◽  
Berry Goossens ◽  
Andrea Trunz ◽  
...  

Desalination ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 523 ◽  
pp. 115393
Author(s):  
Katie M. Brodersen ◽  
Emily A. Bywater ◽  
Alec M. Lanter ◽  
Hayden H. Schennum ◽  
Kumansh N. Furia ◽  
...  

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Author(s):  
Leyla Gazigil ◽  
Eren Er ◽  
O. Erdem Kestioğlu ◽  
Taner Yonar

In this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of electrodialysis bipolar membrane (EDBM) systems for the recovery of the concentrate originating from an organized industrial estate (OIE) wastewater treatment system with reverse osmosis (RO). Acids and bases were obtained from a pilot-scale treatment plant as a result of the research. Furthermore, the sustainability and affordability of acids and bases obtained by EDBM systems were investigated. Six cycles were carried out in continuous-flow mode with the EDBM system as batch cycles in the disposal of the concentrate and the production of acids and bases with the EDBM system. For each cycle, the EDBM system was operated for 66, 48, 66, and 80 min, respectively, and the last two cycles were operated for a total of 165 min (70 + 90) with 5 min of waiting. In the EDBM system, a working method was determined such that the cycle flow rate was 180 L/hour, energy to be given to the system was 25 V, and the working pressure was in the range of 0.8–2.5 bar. In the six cycles with the EDBM system, the concentrate, acid and base, conductivity, pH, and pressure increase values were investigated depending on time. Throughout all these studies, the cycles were continued over the products formed in the acid and base chamber. As a result of all the cycles, acid (HCl) production at a level of 1.44% and base (NaOH) production at a level of 2% were obtained.


Author(s):  
Izabela Anna Tałałaj

Abstract Purpose In this paper the performance and effectiveness of the reverse osmosis (RO) process for the biologically pretreated leachate was investigated. The RO process was carried out separately for two different pH: 8.0 and 9.3. Methods A general pollution parameters as well as organic and inorganic indicators were determined in raw, biologically pretreated and RO treated leachate. The performance characteristics of the reverse osmosis system were made on the basis of permeate flux, electroconductivity removal rate, concentration factor and efficiency in removal of analyzed parameters. Results The use of SBR pretreatment had very good efficiency in BOD (97.3%) and ammonia nitrogen (95.4%) removal. The lowest effectivity was observed for chloride (11.6%), boron (3.9%) and TDS (1.2%). Pretreated leachate was subjected to RO system. The normalized average flux was 0.53 (42.3 L/m2·h) for pH = 8.0 and 0.68 (33.5 L/m2·h) for pH = 9.3. The lower membrane fouling at higher pH can be explained by electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged membrane surface and organic substances. Independently of the process pH, a two-step membrane fouling was observed. The greatest differences in removal rates were observed for boron, which had a higher retention rate at higher pH, and ammonia nitrogen, whose removal rate decreased at higher pH. The obtained permeate pH after RO process was lower than the feed pH in two analyzed value of pH. Conclusions The higher flux value at pH = 9.3 is result of high content of organic matter in leachate, which is better rejected at higher pH because of higher electrostatic repulsion between organic matter and membrane surface. This indicates that the organic matter content should be taken into account when determining the operating parameters (pH values) of the RO system.


Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Author(s):  
Ivana Ivić ◽  
Mirela Kopjar ◽  
Ivana Buljeta ◽  
Dubravko Pichler ◽  
Josip Mesić ◽  
...  

Red wine polyphenols are responsible for its colour, astringency, and bitterness. They are known as strong antioxidants that protect the human body from the harmful effects of free radicals and prevent various diseases. Wine phenolics are influenced by viticulture methods and vinification techniques, and therefore, conventionally and ecologically produced wines of the same variety do not have the same phenolic profile. Ecological viticulture avoids the use of chemical adjuvants in vineyards in order to minimise their negative influence on the environment, wine, and human health. The phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of wine can also be influenced by additional treatments, such as concentration by reverse osmosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of four different pressures (2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 MPa) and two temperature regimes (with and without cooling) on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of conventional and ecological Cabernet Sauvignon red wine during concentration by reverse osmosis. The results showed that retention of individual phenolic compounds depended on the applied processing parameters, chemical composition of the initial wine, and chemical properties of a compound. Higher pressure and retentate cooling favoured the retention of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and monomeric anthocyanins, compared to the opposite conditions. The same trend was observed for antioxidant activity.


AIChE Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guanying Dong ◽  
Yatao Zhang ◽  
Takaaki Sato ◽  
Hiroki Nagasawa ◽  
Masakoto Kanezashi ◽  
...  

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