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Mir Ragib Ishraq ◽  
Nitesh Khadka ◽  
Asif Mohammed Samir ◽  
M. Shahidur Rahman

Three different Indic/Indo-Aryan languages - Bengali, Hindi and Nepali have been explored here in character level to find out similarities and dissimilarities. Having shared the same root, the Sanskrit, Indic languages bear common characteristics. That is why computer and language scientists can take the opportunity to develop common Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques or algorithms. Bearing the concept in mind, we compare and analyze these three languages character by character. As an application of the hypothesis, we also developed a uniform sorting algorithm in two steps, first for the Bengali and Nepali languages only and then extended it for Hindi in the second step. Our thorough investigation with more than 30,000 words from each language suggests that, the algorithm maintains total accuracy as set by the local language authorities of the respective languages and good efficiency.

Geetha Kamurthy ◽  
Sreenivasappa Bhupasandra Veeranna

The extensive use of fossil fuel is destroying the balance of nature that could lead to many problems in the forthcoming era. Renewable energy resources are a ray of hope to avoid possible destruction. Smart grid and distributed power generation systems are now mainly built with the help of renewable energy resources. The integration of renewable energy production system with the smart grid and distributed power generation is facing many challenges that include addressing the issue of isolation and power quality. This paper presents a new approach to address the aforementioned issues by proposing a hybrid bypass technique concept to improve the overall performance of the grid-tied inverter in solar power generation. The topology with the proposed technique is presented using traditional H5, oH5 and H6 inverter. Comparison of topologies with literature is carried out to check the feasibility of the method proposed. It is found that the leakage current of all the proposed inverters is 9 mA and total harmonic distortion is almost about 2%. The proposed topology has good efficiency, common mode and differential mode characteristics.

Mingjuan Huang ◽  
Chunhong Zhou ◽  
Ruiting Wen ◽  
Jiuying Tian ◽  
Wenduo Huang ◽  

Abstract Environmental pollution and new energy development have become topics of increasing concern. Herein, a visible-light-driven photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) with double photoelectrodes was constructed for simultaneous electricity generation and pollutant degradation, in which graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) generated on W/WO3 nanorod arrays (W/WNR/g-C3N4) was used as the photoanode and Fe3+-doped CuBi2O4 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass (ITO/CBFeO) was used as the photocathode. The experimental results showed that the WO3/g-C3N4 Z-scheme structure and one-dimensional WNR rod-like structure could effectively suppress the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers and enable W/WNR/g-C3N4 to present a good photocurrent response under visible light irradiation. The Fermi level mismatch between the W/WNR/g-C3N4 photoanode and ITO/CBFeO photocathode could improve the transfer of photogenerated electrons from the photoanode to the photocathode across the external circuit, enabling the constructed PFC to afford high electricity output and good efficiency for pollutant degradation. The short-circuit current density and maximum power density could reach 620 μA cm−2 and 110 μW cm−2, respectively, while the degradation ratio of oxytetracycline reached 97.6% in 90 min. Therefore, the proposed PFC system provides a new way to generate electric energy and degrade pollutants simultaneously.

Izabela Anna Tałałaj

Abstract Purpose In this paper the performance and effectiveness of the reverse osmosis (RO) process for the biologically pretreated leachate was investigated. The RO process was carried out separately for two different pH: 8.0 and 9.3. Methods A general pollution parameters as well as organic and inorganic indicators were determined in raw, biologically pretreated and RO treated leachate. The performance characteristics of the reverse osmosis system were made on the basis of permeate flux, electroconductivity removal rate, concentration factor and efficiency in removal of analyzed parameters. Results The use of SBR pretreatment had very good efficiency in BOD (97.3%) and ammonia nitrogen (95.4%) removal. The lowest effectivity was observed for chloride (11.6%), boron (3.9%) and TDS (1.2%). Pretreated leachate was subjected to RO system. The normalized average flux was 0.53 (42.3 L/m2·h) for pH = 8.0 and 0.68 (33.5 L/m2·h) for pH = 9.3. The lower membrane fouling at higher pH can be explained by electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged membrane surface and organic substances. Independently of the process pH, a two-step membrane fouling was observed. The greatest differences in removal rates were observed for boron, which had a higher retention rate at higher pH, and ammonia nitrogen, whose removal rate decreased at higher pH. The obtained permeate pH after RO process was lower than the feed pH in two analyzed value of pH. Conclusions The higher flux value at pH = 9.3 is result of high content of organic matter in leachate, which is better rejected at higher pH because of higher electrostatic repulsion between organic matter and membrane surface. This indicates that the organic matter content should be taken into account when determining the operating parameters (pH values) of the RO system.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Pavel V. Ershov ◽  
Yuri V. Mezentsev ◽  
Alexis S. Ivanov

The identification of disease-related protein-protein interactions (PPIs) creates objective conditions for their pharmacological modulation. The contact area (interfaces) of the vast majority of PPIs has some features, such as geometrical and biochemical complementarities, “hot spots”, as well as an extremely low mutation rate that give us key knowledge to influence these PPIs. Exogenous regulation of PPIs is aimed at both inhibiting the assembly and/or destabilization of protein complexes. Often, the design of such modulators is associated with some specific problems in targeted delivery, cell penetration and proteolytic stability, as well as selective binding to cellular targets. Recent progress in interfacial peptide design has been achieved in solving all these difficulties and has provided a good efficiency in preclinical models (in vitro and in vivo). The most promising peptide-containing therapeutic formulations are under investigation in clinical trials. In this review, we update the current state-of-the-art in the field of interfacial peptides as potent modulators of a number of disease-related PPIs. Over the past years, the scientific interest has been focused on following clinically significant heterodimeric PPIs MDM2/p53, PD-1/PD-L1, HIF/HIF, NRF2/KEAP1, RbAp48/MTA1, HSP90/CDC37, BIRC5/CRM1, BIRC5/XIAP, YAP/TAZ–TEAD, TWEAK/FN14, Bcl-2/Bax, YY1/AKT, CD40/CD40L and MINT2/APP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Virtualization plays a key role in the area of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC). In MCC, the protection of distributed VMs and mobile users’ sensitive data, in terms of security and privacy, is highly required. This paper presents a novel cloud proxy known as Three Policies Secure Cloud Proxy (Proxy-3S) that combines three security policies: VM users’ access control, VMs’ secure allocation and VMs’ secure communication. The proposed approach aims to keep the distributed VMs safe in different servers on the cloud. It enhances the access authorization to permit intensive distributed application tasks on the cloud or mobile devices while processing and communicating private information between VMs. Furthermore, an algorithm that enables secure communication among distributed VMs and protection of sensitive data in VMs on the cloud is proposed. Several experiments were conducted using a real-world healthcare distributed application. The experiments achieved promising results for high-level data protection and good efficiency rating compared to existing works.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Katarzyna Masłowska ◽  
Ewa Witkowska ◽  
Dagmara Tymecka ◽  
Paweł Krzysztof Halik ◽  
Aleksandra Misicka ◽  

Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a surface receptor found on many types of cancer cells. The overexpression of NRP-1 and its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF165) are associated with tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, compounds that block the VEGF165/NRP-1 interaction represent a promising strategy to image and treat NRP-1-related pathologies. The aim of the presented work was to design and synthesize radioconjugates of two known peptide-type inhibitors of the VEGF165/NRP-1 complex: A7R peptide and its shorter analog, the branched peptidomimetic Lys(hArg)-Dab-Pro-Arg. Both peptide-type inhibitors were coupled to a radionuclide chelator (DOTA) via a linker (Ahx) and so radiolabeled with Ga-68 and Lu-177 radionuclides, for diagnostic and therapeutic uses, respectively. The synthesized radioconjugates were tested for their possible use as theranostic-like radiopharmaceuticals for the imaging and therapy of cancers that overexpress NRP-1. The obtained results indicate good efficiency of the radiolabeling reaction and satisfactory stability, at least 3t1/2 for the 68Ga- and 1t1/2 for the 177Lu-radiocompounds, in solutions mimicking human body fluids. However, enzymatic degradation of both the studied inhibitors caused insufficient stability of the radiocompounds in human serum, indicating that further modifications are needed to sufficiently stabilize the peptidomimetics with inhibitory properties against VEGF165/NRP-1 complex formation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (6) ◽  
pp. 385-394
Ingun Park ◽  
Jungmin Lee ◽  
Hayong Kim

In this study, the hydraulic characteristics and pollutant treatment efficiency during backwashing were analyzed through laboratory-scale hydraulic model experiments for filtration-type non-point pollution reduction facilities. The filter media used in the experiment were analyzed by calculating the change in head loss for single or complex arrangements of wood chips (WC), sand (SA), and bottom ash (BA). These are commonly used to improve the adsorption mechanism in non-point pollution reduction facilities, from which the pollutant treatment efficiency was derived. The SS treatment efficiency experiments for each filter media layer were conducted with SA+WC (WC 0.3 m in the upper layer, SA 0.3 m in the lower layer) and SA+BA (SA 0.3 m in the upper layer, BA 0.3 m in the lower layer), and the removal efficiency was greater than 80%, indicating good efficiency. In the case of SA+BA, analysis showed a high removal efficiency of 87.4% at a linear velocity of 20 m/hr.

2021 ◽  
pp. 4964-4977
Maysa Abdel Ali ◽  
Ashwaq Al-Abayji

Steganography is the art of concealing security data in media, such as pictures, audio, video, text, and protocols. The objective of this paper is hiding a secret message in a colour image to prevent an attacker from accessing the message. This is important because more people use the Internet all the time and network connections are spread around the world. The hidden secret message uses two general algorithms that are embedded and extracted. This paper proposes a new algorithm to conceal a secret message in a colour image in LSB. This algorithm includes three phases: 1) dividing the colour image into a number of blocks, 2) concealing the secret message, and 3) transmitting the stego-image from the sender in a multiplexer network and receiving it through a demultiplexer network using an electronic workbench. The outcome of the new algorithm demonstrates good efficiency, high security, and robustness and is executed quickly. The system is evaluated through the measurements of mean square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, correlation, histogram, and capacity.

2021 ◽  
Mayyada Muttar Fdhala ◽  
Ayser A. Hemed ◽  
Ramiz A. Al-Ansari ◽  
Raad M. Al-Haddad ◽  

Schottky Diode (SD) Al/a-Se/Au as a solar cell (SC) was prepared by thermal evaporation technique (TET) on glass thin slide as a substrate under vacuum (10!" mbar). The Schottky Barrier (SB) have been prepared with different thicknesses (300, 500 and 700) nm in room temperature and (343) K annealing temperature. The current-voltage (IV) physical properties of the SB have got rectification properties and approved as a SC. This cell is developed with increased annealing temperatures and thickness of layers of SD. Experience under lighting shows good efficiency (η), which increased linearly with both thickness and annealing temperatures from (0.0318% to 4.064%) and from (0.0318% to 0.4778%). This is for three values of lighting power density (160, 230, 400) 𝑚𝑊/𝑐𝑚# in which the behave is similar. The best efficiency obtained in this work was (15.286)% at a power density of 400 𝑚𝑊/𝑐𝑚# , with thickness 700nm and 343K annealing temperature. Also (12.407)% at 230 𝑚𝑊/𝑐𝑚#, with thickness 500nm for the same annealing temperature.

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