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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yushuai Wang ◽  
Aimei Dai ◽  
Tian Tang

Transposable elements (TEs) are an important source of genetic diversity and can be co-opted for the regulation of host genes. However, to what extent the pervasive TE colonization of plant genomes has contributed to stress adaptation remains controversial. Plants inhabiting harsh environments in nature provide a unique opportunity to answer this question. We compared TE compositions and their evolutionary dynamics in the genomes of two mangrove species: the pioneer Sonneratia alba and its less salt-tolerant relative S. caseolaris. Age distribution, strength of purifying selection and the removal rate of LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis of LTR retrotransposons and their distribution in the genome of S. alba were surveyed. Small RNA sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was conducted using leaves of S. alba. Expression pattern of LTR retrotransposons and their nearby genes were examined using RNA-seq data of S. alba under different salt treatments. S. alba possesses more TEs than S. caseolaris. Particularly, many more young Gypsy LTR retrotransposons have accumulated in S. alba than in S. caseolaris despite an increase in purifying selection against TE insertions. The top two most abundant Gypsy families in S. alba preferentially insert in gene-poor regions. They are under relaxed epigenetic repression, probably due to the presence of CHROMO domains in their 3′-ends. Although a considerable number of TEs in S. alba showed differential expression under salt stress, only four copies were significantly correlated with their nearby genes in expression levels. One such TE-gene pair involves Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase 3 functioning in abscisic acid catabolism. This study sheds light on the evolutionary dynamics and potential function of TEs in an extremophile. Our results suggest that the conclusion on co-option of TEs should be cautious even though activation of TEs by stress might be prevalent.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Huixue Ren ◽  
Kaifang Fu ◽  
Wenqing Cheng ◽  
Daoji Wu ◽  
...  

The printing and dyeing wastewater produced by different dyes, as well as different printing and dyeing processes, have different components. These wastewater have high toxicity, high organic concentration, and deep chromaticity. Ozone catalytic oxidation is a very promising technical method for wastewater treatment. In this paper, Mn/Mg/Ce ternary catalyst was prepared, and the ozone catalytic oxidation treatment of actual and simulated printing and dyeing wastewater was performed to study the performance of four different carrier catalysts, namely, molecular sieve (MS), silica gel (SG), attapulgite (ATP), and nano alumina (Al2O3), by simulated dynamic test. The effects of reaction time, pH, and catalyst dosage on methyl orange degradation were studied. The results showed that under the optimum treatment conditions (120 min, pH 11, and 12.5 g/L catalyst dosage), the degradation rate of methyl orange reached 96% and the removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand of printing and dyeing wastewater reached 48.7%. This study shows that the treatment effect of ozone catalytic oxidation on printing and dyeing wastewater is remarkably improved after catalyst addition. This study provides a new choice of ozone catalyst for the degradation of printing and dyeing wastewaters in the future.


Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Author(s):  
Gaoling Ma ◽  
Shujuan Li ◽  
Feilong Liu ◽  
Chen Zhang ◽  
Zhen Jia ◽  
...  

Single-crystal SiC is a typical third-generation semiconductor power-device material because of its excellent electronic and thermal properties. An ultrasmooth surface with atomic surface roughness that is scratch free and subsurface damage (SSD) free is indispensable before its application. As the last process to reduce the surface roughness and remove surface defects, precision polishing of single-crystal SiC is essential. In this paper, precision polishing technologies for 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC, which are the most commonly used polytypes of single-crystal SiC, such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), photocatalytic chemical mechanical polishing (PCMP), plasma-assisted polishing (PAP), electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP), and catalyst-referred etching (CARE), were reviewed and compared with emphasis on the experimental setup, polishing mechanism, material removal rate (MRR), and surface roughness. An atomically smooth surface without SSD can be obtained by CMP, PCMP, PAP, and CARE for single-crystal SiC. However, their MRRs are meager, and the waste treatment after CMP is difficult and expensive. Moreover, PAP’s operation is poor due to the complex polishing system, plasma generation, and irradiation devices. A high MRR can be achieved by ECMP. In addition, it is an environmentally friendly precision polishing process for single-crystal SiC since the neutral salt solution is generally used as the electrolyte in ECMP. However, the formation of the egglike protrusions at the oxide/SiC interface during anodic oxidation would lead to a bigger surface roughness after ECMP than that after PAP is processed. The HF solution used in CARE was toxic, and Pt was particularly expensive. Ultrasonic vibration-assisted single-crystal SiC polishing and electrolyte plasma polishing (EPP) were discussed; furthermore, the research direction of further improving the surface quality and MRR of single-crystal SiC was prospected.


Author(s):  
XIAOZHE YANG ◽  
Xu Yang ◽  
Haiyang Gu ◽  
Kentaro Kawai ◽  
Kenta Arima ◽  
...  

Abstract Slurryless electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP) is very effective in the polishing of silicon carbide (SiC) wafers. To achieve a high material removal rate (MRR) of SiC wafer using ECMP with low electrical energy loss, charge utilization efficiency in the anodic oxidation of the SiC surface was investigated and the underlying mechanism was clarified by modeling the anodic oxidation system of SiC in 1 wt% NaCl aqueous solution. The charge utilization efficiency in the anodic oxidation of SiC was found to be constant when the current density was less than 20 mA/cm2 and significantly decreased when the current density was greater than 30 mA/cm2, resulting in a significant reduction in the MRR. Modeling of the anodic oxidation system indicates that the charge utilization efficiency depended on the potential applied on the SiC surface: the oxidation of SiC occupied the dominant position in the anodizing system when the potential is lower than 25 V vs Ag|AgCl, charge utilization efficiency greatly decreased when the applied potential was greater than 25 V owing to the occurrence of oxidations of the H2O and Cl-. This research provides both a theoretical and practical foundation for using ECMP to polish SiC wafers.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 221
Author(s):  
Paraskevi Psachoulia ◽  
Sofia-Natalia Schortsianiti ◽  
Urania Lortou ◽  
Spyros Gkelis ◽  
Christos Chatzidoukas ◽  
...  

Four microalgae species were evaluated for their bioremediation capacity of anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) rich in ammonium nitrogen, derived from a biogas plant. Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sorokiniana, Desmodesmus communis and Stichococcus sp. were examined for their nutrient assimilation efficiency, biomass production and composition through their cultivation in 3.7% v/v ADE; their performance was compared with standard cultivation media which consisted in different nitrogen sources, i.e., BG-11NO3 and BG-11ΝΗ4 where N-NO3 was replaced by N-NH4. The results justified ammonium as the most preferable source of nitrogen for microalgae growth. Although Stichococcus sp. outperformed the other 3 species in N-NH4 removal efficiency both in BG-11NH4 and in 3.7% ADE (reaching up to 90.79% and 69.69% respectively), it exhibited a moderate biomass production when it was cultivated in diluted ADE corresponding to 0.59 g/L, compared to 0.89 g/L recorded by C. vulgaris and 0.7 g/L by C. sorokiniana and D. communis. Phosphorus contained in the effluent and in the control media was successfully consumed by all of the species, although its removal rate was found to be affected by the type of nitrogen source used and the particular microalgae species. The use of ADE as cultivation medium resulted in a significant increase in carbohydrates content in all investigated species.


Author(s):  
Izabela Anna Tałałaj

Abstract Purpose In this paper the performance and effectiveness of the reverse osmosis (RO) process for the biologically pretreated leachate was investigated. The RO process was carried out separately for two different pH: 8.0 and 9.3. Methods A general pollution parameters as well as organic and inorganic indicators were determined in raw, biologically pretreated and RO treated leachate. The performance characteristics of the reverse osmosis system were made on the basis of permeate flux, electroconductivity removal rate, concentration factor and efficiency in removal of analyzed parameters. Results The use of SBR pretreatment had very good efficiency in BOD (97.3%) and ammonia nitrogen (95.4%) removal. The lowest effectivity was observed for chloride (11.6%), boron (3.9%) and TDS (1.2%). Pretreated leachate was subjected to RO system. The normalized average flux was 0.53 (42.3 L/m2·h) for pH = 8.0 and 0.68 (33.5 L/m2·h) for pH = 9.3. The lower membrane fouling at higher pH can be explained by electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged membrane surface and organic substances. Independently of the process pH, a two-step membrane fouling was observed. The greatest differences in removal rates were observed for boron, which had a higher retention rate at higher pH, and ammonia nitrogen, whose removal rate decreased at higher pH. The obtained permeate pH after RO process was lower than the feed pH in two analyzed value of pH. Conclusions The higher flux value at pH = 9.3 is result of high content of organic matter in leachate, which is better rejected at higher pH because of higher electrostatic repulsion between organic matter and membrane surface. This indicates that the organic matter content should be taken into account when determining the operating parameters (pH values) of the RO system.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 206
Author(s):  
Yicheng Wang ◽  
Yingkun Wang ◽  
Xi Lu ◽  
Wenquan Sun ◽  
Yanhua Xu ◽  
...  

An Mn/[email protected] mud (RM) catalyst was prepared from RM via a doping–calcination method. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface morphology, crystal morphology, and elemental composition of the Mn/[email protected] catalyst, respectively. In addition, preparation and catalytic ozonation conditions were optimized, and the mechanism of catalytic ozonation was discussed. Lastly, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) was adopted to evaluate the degradation of coal chemical biochemical tail water. The best preparation conditions for the Mn/[email protected] catalyst were found to be as follows: (1) active component loading of 3%, (2) Mn/Ce doping ratio of 2:1, (3) calcination temperature of 550 °C, (4) calcination time of 240 min, and (5) fly ash floating bead doping of 10%. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 76.58% under this preparation condition. The characterization results suggested that the pore structure of the optimized Mn/[email protected] catalyst was significantly improved. Mn and Ce were successfully loaded on the catalyst in the form of MnO2 and CeO2. The best operating conditions in the study were as follows: (1) reaction time of 80 min, (2) initial pH of 9, (3) ozone dosage of 2.0 g/h, (4) catalyst dosage of 62.5 g/L, and (5) COD removal rate of 84.96%. Mechanism analysis results showed that hydroxyl radicals (•OH) played a leading role in degrading organics in the biochemical tail water, and adsorption of RM and direct oxidation of ozone played a secondary role. FAHP was established on the basis of environmental impact, economic benefit, and energy consumption. Comprehensive evaluation by FAHP demonstrated that D3 (with an ozone dosage of 2.0 g/H, a catalyst dosage of 62.5 g/L, initial pH of 9, reaction time of 80 min, and a COD removal rate of 84.96%) was the best operating condition.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 232
Author(s):  
Luka Hribar ◽  
Peter Gregorčič ◽  
Matej Senegačnik ◽  
Matija Jezeršek

In this paper, we investigate the influence of the following parameters: pulse duration, pulse repetition rate, line-to-line and pulse-to-pulse overlaps, and scanning strategy on the ablation of AISI 316L steel and CuZn37 brass with a nanosecond, 1064-nm, Yb fiber laser. The results show that the material removal rate (MRR) increases monotonically with pulse duration up to the characteristic repetition rate (f0) where pulse energy and average power are maximal. The maximum MRR is reached at a repetition rate that is equal or slightly higher as f0. The exact value depends on the correlation between the fluence of the laser pulses and the pulse repetition rate, as well as on the material properties of the sample. The results show that shielding of the laser beam by plasma and ejected material plays an important role in reducing the MRR. The surface roughness is mainly influenced by the line-to-line and the pulse-to-pulse overlaps, where larger overlap leads to lower roughness. Process optimization indicates that while operating with laser processing parameters resulting in the highest MRR, the best ratio between the MRR and surface roughness appears at ~50% overlap of the laser pulses, regardless of the material being processed.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 508
Author(s):  
Jijun Tang ◽  
Zhengzhou Duan ◽  
Qinyun Xu ◽  
Chuwen Li ◽  
Dongmei Hou ◽  
...  

In the study, [email protected] composites were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and then calcined to acquire the [email protected] composite as a novel composite for the photocatalytic deterioration of the antibiotic tetracycline (TC). The prepared [email protected] composites were physically and chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), emission fluorescence spectra, transient photocurrent response, electrochemical impedance spectra and Mott–Schottky. Among the composites formed an n–n heterojunction, which increased the separation efficiency of electrons and holes and the efficiency of charge transfer. After the photocatalytic degradation test of TC, it showed that [email protected] (2:1) had the best photodegradation effect with an 86.2% removal rate, which provides a new approach to the treatment of antibiotics such as TC in wastewater.


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