ammonia nitrogen
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2022 ◽  
Vol 45 ◽  
pp. 102501
Yiting Zhang ◽  
Shaohua Yin ◽  
Haoyu Li ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  
Shiwei Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Kang Mao ◽  
Guwei Lu ◽  
Yanjiao Li ◽  
Yitian Zang ◽  
Xianghui Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background The fasting and stress associated with road transportation contributes to a lack of energy and a decline in the immune system of beef cattle. Therefore, it is essential for beef cattle to enhance energy reserves before transportation. Creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) is a new multifunctional nutrient that can provide both pyruvate and creatine, which are two intermediate products of energy metabolism. To investigate the effects of transport and rumen-protected (RP)-CrPyr on the blood biochemical parameters and rumen fluid characteristics of beef cattle, twenty male Simmental crossbred cattle (659 ± 16 kg) aged 18 months were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 5) using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two RP-CrPyr supplemental levels (0 or 140 g/d) and two transport treatments (5 min or 12 h): T_CrPyr140, T_CrPyr0, NT_CrPyr140, and NT_CrPyr0. After feeding for 30 days, three cattle per treatment were slaughtered. Results Compared with nontransport, transport decreased the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, contents of IgA, interferon γ, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in serum, and the amounts of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), acetate, and butyrate in rumen (P < 0.05); increased the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, contents of rumen LPS and ammonia nitrogen (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr supplementation decreased the levels of cortisol and LPS in serum and the butyrate concentration in the rumen of beef cattle compared with those in the unsupplemented groups (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr and transport interaction had a significant effect on the contents of serum tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6, LPS, ruminal pH, acetate content, and acetate/propionate (P < 0.05). In terms of ruminal bacterial composition, group T_CrPyr0 increased the Prevotella genus abundance compared with group NT_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05), while group T_CrPyr140 increased Firmicutes phylum abundance and decreased Bacteroidetes phylum and genus Prevotella abundance compared with group T_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, Bacteroidetes was positively correlated with serum LPS. Conclusions These results indicated that dietary supplementation with RP-CrPyr might be beneficial to alleviate transport stress by decreasing serum cortisol and LPS levels and promoting the restoration of the rumen natural flora.

Quanju Xiang ◽  
Juntao Zhang ◽  
Xiying Huang ◽  
Menggen Ma ◽  
Ke Zhao ◽  

Silage fermentation, a sustainable way to use vegetable waste resources, is a complex process driven by a variety of microorganisms. We used lettuce waste as the main raw material for silage, analyzed changes in the physico-chemical characteristics and bacterial community composition of silage over a 60-day fermentation, identified differentially abundant taxa, predicted the functional profiles of bacterial communities, and determined the associated effects on the quality of silage. The biggest changes occurred in the early stage of silage fermentation. Changes in the physico-chemical characteristics included a decrease in pH and increases in ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio and lactic acid content. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased and molds, yeasts and aerobic bacteria decreased. The bacterial communities and their predicted functions on day 0 were clearly different from those on day 7 to day 60. The relative abundances of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus increased. Nitrite ammonification and nitrate ammonification were more prevalent after day 0. The differences in the predicted functions were associated with differences in pH and amino acid, protein, carbohydrate, NH3-N, ether extract and crude ash contents.

Izabela Anna Tałałaj

Abstract Purpose In this paper the performance and effectiveness of the reverse osmosis (RO) process for the biologically pretreated leachate was investigated. The RO process was carried out separately for two different pH: 8.0 and 9.3. Methods A general pollution parameters as well as organic and inorganic indicators were determined in raw, biologically pretreated and RO treated leachate. The performance characteristics of the reverse osmosis system were made on the basis of permeate flux, electroconductivity removal rate, concentration factor and efficiency in removal of analyzed parameters. Results The use of SBR pretreatment had very good efficiency in BOD (97.3%) and ammonia nitrogen (95.4%) removal. The lowest effectivity was observed for chloride (11.6%), boron (3.9%) and TDS (1.2%). Pretreated leachate was subjected to RO system. The normalized average flux was 0.53 (42.3 L/m2·h) for pH = 8.0 and 0.68 (33.5 L/m2·h) for pH = 9.3. The lower membrane fouling at higher pH can be explained by electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged membrane surface and organic substances. Independently of the process pH, a two-step membrane fouling was observed. The greatest differences in removal rates were observed for boron, which had a higher retention rate at higher pH, and ammonia nitrogen, whose removal rate decreased at higher pH. The obtained permeate pH after RO process was lower than the feed pH in two analyzed value of pH. Conclusions The higher flux value at pH = 9.3 is result of high content of organic matter in leachate, which is better rejected at higher pH because of higher electrostatic repulsion between organic matter and membrane surface. This indicates that the organic matter content should be taken into account when determining the operating parameters (pH values) of the RO system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jingyang Shi ◽  
Guangyi Zhang ◽  
Hang Zhang ◽  
Fa Qiao ◽  
Jie Fan ◽  

To reveal the effects of thermal hydrolysis (TH) pretreatment (THPT) on anaerobic digestion (AD) of protein-rich substrates, discarded tofu was chosen as the object, and its batch AD tests of tofu before and after being subjected to TH at gradually increasing organic loads were carried out and the AD process characteristics were compared; furthermore, its continuous AD tests without and with THPT were also conducted and the difference of the microbial community structures was investigated. The results showed that, during AD of protein-rich tofu with increase in the organic load, inhibition from severe acidification prior to accumulation of ammonia nitrogen (AN) occurred. THPT helped overcome the acidification inhibition present in batch AD of tofu at such a high TS content of 3.6%, to obtain the maximum methane yield rate of 589.39 ml·(gVS)−1. Continuous AD of protein-rich tofu heavily depended on ammonia-tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacteria. The continuous AD processes acclimated by HT substrates seemed to be resistant to severe organic loads, by boosting growth of ammonia-tolerant microorganisms, above all methylotrophic methanogens such as the genera RumEnM2 and methanomassiliicoccus. The process response of continuous AD of HT tofu was hysteretic, suggesting that a sufficiently long adaptation period was required for stabilizing the AD system.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0260918
Felista W. Mwangi ◽  
Benedicte Suybeng ◽  
Christopher P. Gardiner ◽  
Robert T. Kinobe ◽  
Edward Charmley ◽  

Desmanthus (Desmanthus spp.), a tropically adapted pasture legume, is highly productive and has the potential to reduce methane emissions in beef cattle. However, liveweight gain response to desmanthus supplementation has been inconclusive in ruminants. This study aimed to evaluate weight gain, rumen fermentation and plasma metabolites of Australian tropical beef cattle in response to supplementation with incremental levels of desmanthus forage legume in isonitrogenous diets. Forty-eight Brahman, Charbray and Droughtmaster crossbred beef steers were pen-housed and fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay supplemented with 0, 15, 30 or 45% freshly chopped desmanthus forage on dry matter basis, for 140 days. Varying levels of lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay were added in the 0, 15 and 30% diets to ensure that all diets were isonitrogenous with the 45% desmanthus diet. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Model procedures of SAS software. Results showed that the proportion of desmanthus in the diet had no significant effect on steer liveweight, rumen volatile fatty acids molar proportions and plasma metabolites (P ≥ 0.067). Total bilirubin ranged between 3.0 and 3.6 μmol/L for all the diet treatments (P = 0.67). All plasma metabolites measured were within the expected normal range reported for beef cattle. Rumen ammonia nitrogen content was above the 10 mg/dl threshold required to maintain effective rumen microbial activity and maximize voluntary feed intake in cattle fed low-quality tropical forages. The average daily weight gains averaged 0.5 to 0.6 kg/day (P = 0.13) and were within the range required to meet the target slaughter weight for prime beef markets within 2.5 years of age. These results indicate that desmanthus alone or mixed with other high-quality legume forages can be used to supplement grass-based diets to improve tropical beef cattle production in northern Australia with no adverse effect on cattle health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 79 (2) ◽  
Jianjun Shan ◽  
Xiaoqing Tian ◽  
Chongwu Guan ◽  
Chenglin Zhang ◽  
Yulei Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the safety of copper ion sterilization based on copper ion residues in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio), as well as bacterial community structure and diversity in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs). The copper ion content was determined using national food safety standard GB 5009.13-2017. Bacterial community structures and alpha and beta diversity indexes were examined using the 16S rRNA gene sequences produced by Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The results revealed no significant copper ion enrichment in B. rerio when the copper ion concentration was 0.15 mg/L. The relative abundances of Erythrobacter, nitrite bacteria, and Flavanobacteria were clearly higher in the treatment group than in the control and differences in bacterial species richness and diversity were obvious. In addition, there was no sharp decrease in the microflora at the outflow of the copper ion generator. In conjunction with the changes in ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations during the experiment, the results indicated that there were no significant effects on the purification efficacy of the biological filter, but the abundances of beneficial bacteria increased significantly. This is of great relevance in order to understand the response of bacterial communities affected by changing environmental conditions, such as copper ion sterilization.

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