seismic fragility
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Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Rabindra Adhikari ◽  
Rajesh Rupakhety ◽  
Prajwal Giri ◽  
Rewati Baruwal ◽  
Ramesh Subedi ◽  

Most of the reinforced concrete buildings in Nepal are low-rise construction, as this type of construction is the most dominant structural form adopted to construct residential buildings in urban and semi-urban neighborhoods throughout the country. The low-rise residential constructions generally follow the guidelines recommended by the Nepal Building Code, especially the mandatory rules of thumb. Although low-rise buildings have brick infills and are randomly constructed, infill walls and soil–structure interaction effects are generally neglected in the design and assessment of such structures. To this end, bare frame models that are used to represent such structures are questionable, especially when seismic vulnerability analysis is concerned. To fulfil this gap, we performed seismic vulnerability analysis of low-rise residential RC buildings considering infill walls and soil–structure interaction effects. Considering four analysis cases, we outline comparative seismic vulnerability for various analysis cases in terms of fragility functions. The sum of observations highlights that the effects of infills, and soil–structure interaction are damage state sensitive for low-rise RC buildings. Meanwhile, the design considerations will be significantly affected since some performance parameters are more sensitive than the overall fragility. We also observed that the analytical fragility models fundamentally overestimate the actual seismic fragility in the case of low-rise RC buildings.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 499
Duc-Vu Ngo ◽  
Young-Jin Kim ◽  
Dong-Hyawn Kim

This study proposed a new suction bucket (SB) foundation model for offshore wind turbines (OWT) suitable for a shallow muddy seabed, using more than three single buckets through kinetic derivation. The performance of new optimal foundation was evaluated by its horizontal displacement capacity and compared with a conventional SB composed of three buckets. Under external loads such as earthquakes, wind, and the combination of the both, the stability of this novel SB foundation was verified. The seismic fragility curve was also evaluated at some scour depths. These results were compared with the response of a tripod suction bucket (TSB) foundation, which was also designed for a shallow muddy seabed. The results indicated that scour significantly changed the dynamic response of this novel SB foundation but it had a better bearing capacity than the TSB foundation, despite its smaller size and weight. The fragility of TSB is always higher than the developed foundation in the same environmental condition. With reasonable volume and size, this novel SB foundation has great potential for future industrialization and commercialization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Yanjie Xiao ◽  
Feng Yue ◽  
Xun'an Zhang

Metamodel-based seismic fragility analysis methods can overcome the challenge of high computational costs of problems considering the uncertainties of earthquakes and structural parameters; however, the accuracy of metamodels is difficult to control. To enhance the efficiency of analyses without compromising accuracy, a metamodeling method using Gaussian process regression (GPR) and active learning (AL) for seismic fragility analysis is proposed. In this method, a GPR metamodel is built to estimate the stochastic seismic response of a structure, in which the record-to-record variability is considered as in the dual-metamodel-based fragility analysis approach. The metamodel can also predict the estimation error. Taking advantage of this ability, we present an AL strategy for adaptive sampling, so that the metamodel can be improved adaptively according to the problem. Using this metamodel and Monte Carlo simulation, seismic fragility curves can be obtained with a small number of calls for time history analysis. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed method was applied to three examples of nonlinear structures and compared with existing methods. The results show that this method has high computational efficiency and can ensure the accuracy of fragility curves without making the metamodel globally accurate.

2021 ◽  
Zarrin Karimzadeh ◽  
Mohsen Ghafory-Ashtiany ◽  
Afshin Kalantari ◽  
Sahar Shokuhirad

Abstract One of the main components for the development of regional seismic risk models is the fragility functions for common building types. Due to the differences between the national design codes, construction practices, and construction materials, it is necessary to develop specific fragility functions for the common building types which are constructed in each region. One of the existing challenges is the lack of classified, reliable, and cogent local seismic fragility functions for common buildings in Iran. For this reason, the present study is devoted to filling this essential gap. Therefore, at the first step, a comprehensive study was performed on the existing building types in the country. Finally, the Iranian common buildings are classified into 35 categories regarding material, lateral-load-resisting system, age, height, and code level. Also, by conducting comprehensive studies on all previously performed researches in the country, structural and dynamic parameters have been collected for buildings in each class. This information was used to compute a large set of backbone curves for Iranian buildings taxonomy. In the next steps, a large set of ground motion records were selected. Then non-linear time-history analyses were performed on the generic backbone curve for each type of building, and the structural responses were used to derive fragility functions for building classes. Then nearly three hundred appropriate fragility functions were generated for Iranian common buildings considering both record-to-record and building-to-building response variability using cloud analysis. Based on the existing empirical data from past earthquakes in the country, the validation of the resulting fragility functions was carried out. The resulted fragility functions can be utilized in seismic risk assessment studies in the country.

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