Sediment Yield
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Energy Nexus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 100038
Author(s):  
Berhanu G. Sinshaw ◽  
Abreham M. Belete ◽  
Belachew M. Mekonen ◽  
Tesgaye G. Wubetu ◽  
Tegenu L. Anley ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Sarvat Gull ◽  
Shagoofta Rasool Shah

Abstract In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to examine the spatial variability of sediment yield, quantify runoff, and soil loss at the sub-basin level and prioritize sub-basins in the Sindh watershed due to its computational efficiency in complex watersheds. The Sequential Uncertainty Fitting-2 approach was used to determine the sensitivity and uncertainty of model parameters. The parameter sensitivity analysis showed that Soil Conservation Services Curve Number II is the most sensitive model parameter for streamflow simulation, whereas linear parameters for sediment re-entrainment is the most significant parameter for sediment yield simulation. This study used daily runoff and sediment event data from 2003 to 2013; data from 2003 to 2008 were utilized for calibration and data from 2009 to 2013 were used for validation. In general, the model performance statistics showed good agreement between observed and simulated values of streamflow and sediment yield for both calibration and validation periods. The noticed insights of this research show the ability of the SWAT model in simulating the hydrology of the Sindh watershed and its reliability to be utilized as a decision-making tool by decision-makers and researchers to influence strategies in the management of watershed processes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 678
Author(s):  
Chong Wei ◽  
Zhiqiang Zhang ◽  
Zhiguo Wang ◽  
Lianhai Cao ◽  
Yichang Wei ◽  
...  

The relationship between water-sediment processes and landscape pattern changes has currently become a research hotspot in low-carbon water and land resource optimization research. The SWAT-VRR model is a distributed hydrological model which better shows the effect of land use landscape change on hydrological processes in the watershed. In this paper, the hydrological models of the Dapoling watershed were built, the runoff and sediment yield from 2006 to 2011 were simulated, and the relationship between landscape patterns and water-sediment yield was analyzed. The results show that the SWAT-VRR model is more accurate and reasonable in describing runoff and sediment yield than the SWAT model. The sub-basins whose soil erosion is relatively light are mostly concentrated in the middle reaches with a slope mainly between 0–5°. The NP, PD, ED, SPIIT, SHEI, and SHDI of the watershed increased slightly, and the COHESION, AI, CONTAG, and LPI showed a certain decrease. The landscape pattern is further fragmented, with the degree of landscape heterogeneity increasing and the connection reducing. The runoff, sediment yield and surface runoff are all extremely significantly negatively correlated with forest, which implies that for more complicated patch shapes of forest which have longer boundaries connecting with the patches of other landscape types, the water and sediment processes are regulated more effectively. Therefore, it can be more productive to carry out research on the optimization of water and soil resources under the constraint of carbon emission based on the SWAT-VRR model.


Geomorphology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 108107
Author(s):  
Hernán Alcayaga ◽  
Marco Soto-Alvarez ◽  
Jonathan B. Laronne ◽  
Diego Caamaño ◽  
Luca Mao ◽  
...  

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Author(s):  
Haroon Rashid ◽  
Kaijie Yang ◽  
Aicong Zeng ◽  
Song Ju ◽  
Abdur Rashid ◽  
...  

Future climate change is expected to impact the natural systems. This study used future climate data of general circulation models (GCMs) to investigate the impacts of climate change during the future period (2062–2095) relative to the historical period (1981–2014) on the hydrological system of the Minjiang river watershed, China. A previously calibrated soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was employed to simulate the future hydrology under the impacts of changes in temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2 concentration for four shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP 1, 2, 3, and 5) of the CMIP6. The study revealed that the impacts of increase in future temperature, i.e., increase in ET, and decrease in surface runoff, water, and sediment yield will be countered by increased atmospheric [CO2], and changes in the hydrological parameters in the future will be mostly associated to changes in precipitation. Data of the GCMs for all the SSPs predicts increase in precipitation of the watershed, which will cause increase in surface runoff, water yield, and sediment yield. Surface runoff will increase more in SSP 5 (47%), while sediment and water yield will increase more in SSP 1, by 33% and 23%, respectively. At the seasonal scale, water yield and surface runoff will increase more in autumn and winter in SSP 1, while in other scenarios, these parameters will increase more in the spring and summer seasons. Sediment yield will increase more in autumn in all scenarios. Similarly, the future climate change is predicted to impact the important parameters related to the flow regime of the Minjiang river, i.e., the frequency and peak of large floods (flows > 14,000 m3/s) will increase along the gradient of scenarios, i.e., more in SSP 5 followed by 3, 2, and 1, while duration will increase in SSP 5 and decrease in the other SSPs. The frequency and duration of extreme low flows will increase in SSP 5 while decrease in SSP 1. Moreover, peak of extreme low flows will decrease in all scenarios except SSP 1, in which it will increase. The study will improve the general understanding about the possible impacts of future climate change in the region and provide support for improving the management and protection of the watershed’s water and soil resources.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 103-117
Author(s):  
Abdelali Gourfi ◽  
Lahcen Daoudi ◽  
Abdelhafid El Alaoui El fels ◽  
Abdellatif Rafik ◽  
Salifou Noma Adamou ◽  
...  

Morocco ranks among countries with the greatest achievements in the field of dams in Africa but is affected by the sedimentation phenomenon due to soil erosion in upstreams. The assessment of Sediment Yield (SY) and Suspended Sediment Yield (SSY) remains a challenging global issue, especially in Morocco, characterized by a great diversity of morphological, climatic, and vegetation cover. The main objective of this paper was to perform advanced statistics and artificial neural networks (ANN) in order to understand the spatial distribution of sediment yield and the factors most controlling it, including factors of the RUSLE model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation). In order to produce a model able to assess SY, we collected and analyzed extensive data of most variables that can be affecting SY using 42 catchments of the biggest and important dams of Morocco. Statistical analysis of the studied watersheds shows that SY is mainly related to the watershed area and the length of the drainage network.  On the other hand, the SSY is higher in watersheds where gully erosion is abundant and lower in areas with no soil horizon. The SSY is mainly related to the altitude, aridity index, sand fraction, and drainage network length. In front of the complexity of preserving this phenomenon, the ANN was applied and gave very good satisfactory results in predicting the SSY (NSE=0.93, R2=0.93).


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3647
Author(s):  
Muhammad Gufran Ali ◽  
Sikandar Ali ◽  
Rao Husnain Arshad ◽  
Aftab Nazeer ◽  
Muhammad Mohsin Waqas ◽  
...  

Near real-time estimation of soil loss from river catchments is crucial for minimizing environmental degradation of complex river basins. The Chenab river is one of the most complex river basins of the world and is facing severe soil loss due to extreme hydrometeorological conditions, unpredictable hydrologic response, and complex orography. Resultantly, huge soil erosion and sediment yield (SY) not only cause irreversible environmental degradation in the Chenab river catchment but also deteriorate the downstream water resources. In this study, potential soil erosion (PSE) is estimated from the transboundary Chenab river catchment using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), coupled with remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). Land Use of the European Space Agency (ESA), Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data, and world soil map of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization were incorporated into the study. The SY was estimated on monthly, quarterly, seasonal, and annual time-scales using sediment delivery ratio (SDR) estimated through the area, slope, and curve number (CN)-based approaches. The 30-year average PSE from the Chenab river catchment was estimated as 177.8, 61.5, 310.3, 39.5, 26.9, 47.1, and 99.1 tons/ha for annual, rabi, kharif, fall, winter, spring, and summer time scales, respectively. The 30-year average annual SY from the Chenab river catchment was estimated as 4.086, 6.163, and 7.502 million tons based on area, slope, and CN approaches. The time series trends analysis of SY indicated an increase of 0.0895, 0.1387, and 0.1698 million tons per year for area, slope, and CN-based approaches, respectively. It is recommended that the areas, except for slight erosion intensity, should be focused on framing strategies for control and mitigation of soil erosion in the Chenab river catchment.


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 3554
Author(s):  
Haroon Rashid ◽  
Kaijie Yang ◽  
Aicong Zeng ◽  
Song Ju ◽  
Abdur Rashid ◽  
...  

Changes in the climate and landcover are the two most important factors that influence terrestrial hydrological systems. Today, watershed-scale hydrological models are widely used to estimate the individual impacts of changes in the climate and landcover on watershed hydrology. The Minjiang river watershed is an ecologically and economically important, humid, subtropical watershed, located in south-eastern China. Several studies are available on the impacts of recent climate change on the watershed; however, no efforts have been made to separate the individual contributions of climate and landcover changes. This study is an attempt to separate the individual impacts of recent (1989–2018) climate and landcover changes on some of the important hydrological components of the watershed, and highlight the most influential changes in climate parameters and landcover classes. A calibrated soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) was employed for the study. The outcomes revealed that, during the study period, water yield decreased by 6.76%, while evapotranspiration, surface runoff and sediment yield increased by 1.08%, 24.11% and 33.85% respectively. The relative contribution of climate change to landcover change for the decrease in the water yield was 95%, while its contribution to the increases in evapotranspiration, surface runoff and sediment yield was 56%, 77% and 51%, respectively. The changes in climate parameters that were most likely responsible for changes in ET were increasing solar radiation and temperature and decreasing wind speed, those for changes in the water yield were decreasing autumn precipitation and increasing solar radiation and temperature, those for the increase in surface runoff were increasing summer and one-day maximum precipitation, while those for the increasing sediment yield were increasing winter and one-day maximum precipitation. Similarly, an increase in the croplands at the expense of needle-leaved forests was the landcover change that was most likely responsible for a decrease in the water yield and an increase in ET and sediment yield, while an increase in the amount of urban land at the expense of broadleaved forests and wetlands was the landcover change that was most likely responsible for increasing surface runoff. The findings of the study can provide support for improving management and protection of the watershed in the context of landcover and climate change.


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