species responses
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Ecology ◽  
2021 ◽  
J. Adam Langley ◽  
Emily Grman ◽  
Kevin R. Wilcox ◽  
Meghan L. Avolio ◽  
Kimberly J. Komatsu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Joaquín Calatayud ◽  
Joaquín Hortal ◽  
Jorge Ari Noriega ◽  
Ángel Arcones ◽  
Verónica R. Espinoza ◽  

2021 ◽  
Sean James Buckley ◽  
Chris Brauer ◽  
Peter Unmack ◽  
Michael Hammer ◽  
Luciano B Beheregaray

Understanding how species biology may facilitate resilience to climate change remains a critical factor in detecting and protecting species at risk of extinction. Many studies have focused on the role of particular ecological traits in driving species responses, but less so on demographic history and levels of standing genetic variation. We used environmental and genomic datasets to reconstruct the phylogeographic histories of two ecologically similar and largely co-distributed freshwater fishes to assess the degree of concordance in their responses to Plio-Pleistocene climatic changes. Although several co-occurring populations demonstrated concordant demographic histories, idiosyncratic population size changes were found at the range edges of the more spatially restricted species. Discordant responses between species were associated with low standing genetic variation in peripheral populations. This might have hindered adaptive potential, as documented in recent population declines and extinctions of the two species. Our results highlight both the role of spatial scale in the degree of concordance in species responses to climate change, and the importance of standing genetic variation in facilitating range shifts. Even when ecological traits are similar between species, long-term genetic diversity and historical population demography may lead to discordant responses to ongoing and future climate change.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (5) ◽  
Ryan C Garrick ◽  
Chaz Hyseni ◽  
Ísis C Arantes ◽  
Louis G Zachos ◽  
Peter C Zee ◽  

Abstract Comparative phylogeographic studies can distinguish between idiosyncratic and community-wide responses to past environmental change. However, to date, the impacts of species interactions have been largely overlooked. Here we used non-genetic data to characterize two competing scenarios about expected levels of congruence among five deadwood-associated (saproxylic) invertebrate species (i.e., a wood-feeding cockroach, termite, and beetle; a predatory centipede, and a detritivorous millipede) from the southern Appalachian Mountains—a globally recognized center of endemism. Under one scenario, abiotic factors primarily drove species’ responses, with predicted congruence based on the spatial overlap of climatically stable habitat areas estimated for each species via ecological niche modeling. The second scenario considered biotic factors to be most influential, with proxies for species interactions used to predict congruence. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences focused on four axes of comparison: the number and geographic distribution of distinct spatial-genetic clusters, phylogeographic structure, changes in effective population size, and historical gene flow dynamics. Overall, we found stronger support for the ecological co-associations scenario, suggesting an important influence of biotic factors in constraining or facilitating species’ responses to Pleistocene climatic cycles. However, there was an imperfect fit between predictions and outcomes of genetic data analyses. Thus, while thought-provoking, conclusions remain tentative until additional data on species interactions becomes available. Ultimately, the approaches presented here advance comparative phylogeography by expanding the scope of inferences beyond solely considering abiotic drivers, which we believe is too simplistic. This work also provides conservation-relevant insights into the evolutionary history of a functionally important ecological community.

Ecography ◽  
2021 ◽  
Greta Bocedi ◽  
Stephen C. F. Palmer ◽  
Anne‐Kathleen Malchow ◽  
Damaris Zurell ◽  
Kevin Watts ◽  

Jonás A. Aguirre-Liguori ◽  
Santiago Ramírez-Barahona ◽  
Brandon S. Gaut

Jemima Connell ◽  
Mark A. Hall ◽  
Dale G. Nimmo ◽  
Simon J. Watson ◽  
Michael F. Clarke

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Joan M. Bernhard ◽  
Johannes C. Wit ◽  
Victoria R. Starczak ◽  
David J. Beaudoin ◽  
William G. Phalen ◽  

Ocean chemistry is changing as a result of human activities. Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing, causing an increase in oceanic pCO2 that drives a decrease in oceanic pH, a process called ocean acidification (OA). Higher CO2 concentrations are also linked to rising global temperatures that can result in more stratified surface waters, reducing the exchange between surface and deep waters; this stronger stratification, along with nutrient pollution, contributes to an expansion of oxygen-depleted zones (so called hypoxia or deoxygenation). Determining the response of marine organisms to environmental changes is important for assessments of future ecosystem functioning. While many studies have assessed the impact of individual or paired stressors, fewer studies have assessed the combined impact of pCO2, O2, and temperature. A long-term experiment (∼10 months) with different treatments of these three stressors was conducted to determine their sole or combined impact on the abundance and survival of a benthic foraminiferal community collected from a continental-shelf site. Foraminifera are well suited to such study because of their small size, relatively rapid growth, varied mineralogies and physiologies. Inoculation materials were collected from a ∼77-m deep site south of Woods Hole, MA. Very fine sediments (<53 μm) were used as inoculum, to allow the entire community to respond. Thirty-eight morphologically identified taxa grew during the experiment. Multivariate statistical analysis indicates that hypoxia was the major driving factor distinguishing the yields, while warming was secondary. Species responses were not consistent, with different species being most abundant in different treatments. Some taxa grew in all of the triple-stressor samples. Results from the experiment suggest that foraminiferal species’ responses will vary considerably, with some being negatively impacted by predicted environmental changes, while other taxa will tolerate, and perhaps even benefit, from deoxygenation, warming and OA.

2021 ◽  
Tian Yang ◽  
Min Long ◽  
Melinda D. Smith ◽  
Qian Gu ◽  
Yadong Yang ◽  

Abstract Aims Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition altered plant communities globally, however the changes in species abundances with short-term vs. long-term N enrichment remains unclear. Stoichiometric homeostasis (H) is a key trait predictive of plant species dominance and species responses to short-term global changes. It is unknown whether N enrichment can alter H over time, thereby affecting species responses to long-term N addition. Methods Here we address these two knowledge gaps with three representative species in a long-term N addition experiment and a sand culture experiment. Results The abundance of Leymus chinensis decreased with short-term N addition, and increased with long-term N addition, while Chenopodium glaucum showed opposite pattern. Cleistogenes squarrosa was only favored by 1-year N addition, and depressed by two and more years of N addition. The H values of L. chinensis and C. glaucum decreased significantly with long-term N addition however did not change for C. squarrosa. Conclusion The decrease of H suggested the nutrients use strategy became more progressive, which mediated the responses of species abundances to short- and long-term N addition. We anticipate our research to be a starting point for explaining ecosystems function and process in response to global change from the perspective of species adaptability mediated by H.

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