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Soil Systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Author(s):  
Sarah M. Denton-Thompson ◽  
Emma J. Sayer

Soil micronutrients limit crop productivity in many regions worldwide, and micronutrient deficiencies affect over two billion people globally. Microbial biofertilizers could combat these issues by inoculating arable soils with microorganisms that mobilize micronutrients, increasing their availability to crop plants in an environmentally sustainable and cost-effective manner. However, the widespread application of biofertilizers is limited by complex micronutrient–microbe–plant interactions, which reduce their effectiveness under field conditions. Here, we review the current state of seven micronutrients in food production. We examine the mechanisms underpinning microbial micronutrient mobilization in natural ecosystems and synthesize the state-of-knowledge to improve our overall understanding of biofertilizers in food crop production. We demonstrate that, although soil micronutrient concentrations are strongly influenced by soil conditions, land management practices can also substantially affect micronutrient availability and uptake by plants. The effectiveness of biofertilizers varies, but several lines of evidence indicate substantial benefits in co-applying biofertilizers with conventional inorganic or organic fertilizers. Studies of micronutrient cycling in natural ecosystems provide examples of microbial taxa capable of mobilizing multiple micronutrients whilst withstanding harsh environmental conditions. Research into the mechanisms of microbial nutrient mobilization in natural ecosystems could, therefore, yield effective biofertilizers to improve crop nutrition under global changes.


eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Darian Williams ◽  
Marwa Mahmoud ◽  
Renfa Liu ◽  
Aitor Andueza ◽  
Sandeep Kumar ◽  
...  

Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow (d-flow), while regions exposed to stable flow (s-flow) are protected. The proatherogenic and atheroprotective effects of d-flow and s-flow are mediated in part by the global changes in endothelial cell gene expression, which regulates endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Previously, we identified Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 10 (Klk10, a secreted serine protease) as a flow-sensitive gene in mouse arterial endothelial cells, but its role in endothelial biology and atherosclerosis was unknown. Here, we show that KLK10 is upregulated under s-flow conditions and downregulated under d-flow conditions using in vivo& mouse models and in vitro studies with cultured endothelial cells (ECs). Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) and scATAC sequencing (scATACseq) study using the partial carotid ligation mouse model showed flow-regulated Klk10 expression at the epigenomic and transcription levels. Functionally, KLK10 protected against d-flow-induced permeability dysfunction and inflammation in human artery ECs (HAECs), as determined by NFkB activation, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), and monocyte adhesion. Further, treatment of mice in vivo with rKLK10 decreased arterial endothelial inflammation in d-flow regions. Additionally, rKLK10 injection or ultrasound-mediated transfection of Klk10-expressing plasmids inhibited atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice. Moreover, KLK10 expression was significantly reduced in human coronary arteries with advanced atherosclerotic plaques compared to those with less severe plaques. KLK10 is a flow-sensitive endothelial protein that serves as an anti-inflammatory, barrier-protective, and anti-atherogenic factor.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Esther Blanco-Romero ◽  
David Durán ◽  
Daniel Garrido-Sanz ◽  
Rafael Rivilla ◽  
Marta Martín ◽  
...  

Rhizosphere colonization by bacteria involves molecular and cellular mechanisms, such as motility and chemotaxis, biofilm formation, metabolic versatility, or biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, among others. Nonetheless, there is limited knowledge concerning the main regulatory factors that drive the rhizosphere colonization process. Here we show the importance of the AmrZ and FleQ transcription factors for adaption in the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) and rhizosphere colonization model Pseudomonas ogarae F113. RNA-Seq analyses of P. ogarae F113 grown in liquid cultures either in exponential and stationary growth phase, and rhizosphere conditions, revealed that rhizosphere is a key driver of global changes in gene expression in this bacterium. Regarding the genetic background, this work has revealed that a mutation in fleQ causes considerably more alterations in the gene expression profile of this bacterium than a mutation in amrZ under rhizosphere conditions. The functional analysis has revealed that in P. ogarae F113, the transcription factors AmrZ and FleQ regulate genes involved in diverse bacterial functions. Notably, in the rhizosphere, these transcription factors antagonistically regulate genes related to motility, biofilm formation, nitrogen, sulfur, and amino acid metabolism, transport, signalling, and secretion, especially the type VI secretion systems. These results define the regulon of two important bifunctional transcriptional regulators in pseudomonads during the process of rhizosphere colonization.


Upravlenie ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 112-120
Author(s):  
L. V. Tcerkasevich ◽  
E. A. Makarenko

The article analyses the global social risks related to the expansion of information technologies, mass digitalisation, and the accessibility of sources of all information. The possibility of risky situations arising in different areas of society under postmodern conditions has been demonstrated. This is due to the massive spread of information and Internet technology, global changes in the structure of values of modern society, and the reassessment of a number of historical events and characters by some social groups. The focus is on the destruction of traditional mechanisms for transmitting social experience and memory and the transformation of perceptions of history through the use of virtual forms of communication. A different, own interpretation of historical events, the liberation of historical knowledge from politicisation and mythologisation can lead to risks of distortion of historical memory and even to conflicting situations of interpretation of the past. Case studies show that this, in turn, can lead to a set of risks in the economic sphere, for example: the risk of a situation of global redistribution of economic resources, the risk of losing the source of legitimacy of an economic resource, the risk of loss the reputation of a memory entity. These processes negatively affect social stability in society and distort the integrity of historical memory.Particular attention is paid to the topic of cognitive transformation risk related to the mass use of virtual media in the educational process. On the one hand, they are an effective teaching tool based on rapid search, transformation and storage of learning information. But, on the other hand, practice shows that knowledge loses its consistency and becomes “mosaic”, “clichéd”. The consequences of these processes are of a lasting nature and require further in-depth study by the scientific community, including psychologists, educators, and sociologists.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Thibault ◽  
Fanny Houlbreque ◽  
Nicolas N. Duprey ◽  
Noémie Choisnard ◽  
David P. Gillikin ◽  
...  

The ability of corals to modulate their nutrition strategy in response to variable nutrient supply remains poorly understood, limiting our understanding of energy flow in coral reef ecosystems and thus our comprehension of their resilience to global changes. We used a naturally occurring nutrient gradient along the reef flat of two seabird-inhabited islets in the SW Pacific to characterize spatiotemporal fluctuations in coastal nutrient availability, and how it modulates the trophic response of the mixotrophic coral Pocillopora damicornis. The clear gradients in dissolved [NOx] and δ15N values of macroalgae and both P. damicornis tissues and symbionts observed along the reef flat during the dry and the rainy season revealed that seabird-derived-N is supplied year-round to the reef flat. Yet, nitrogen isotope values of macroalgae show that the seabirds’ effect on coral reefs varies with sites and seasons. Metrics derived from the SIBER framework revealed that coral nutrition seasonally favored autotrophy when exposed to higher seabird guano concentrations and at inshore stations, while heterotrophy dominated in corals less exposed to seabird-derived nutrient supply. P. Damicornis is therefore able to cope with large changes in nitrogen supply induced by seabird island communities by switching between autotrophy and heterotrophy. These results shed light on the flexibility of resource sharing within the coral-algae symbiosis and highlight the importance of seabird populations to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.


BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hildegard I. D. Mack ◽  
Jennifer Kremer ◽  
Eva Albertini ◽  
Elisabeth K. M. Mack ◽  
Pidder Jansen-Dürr

Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, longevity in response to germline ablation, but not in response to reduced insulin/IGF1-like signaling, is strongly dependent on the conserved protein kinase minibrain-related kinase 1 (MBK-1). In humans, the MBK-1 ortholog DYRK1A is associated with a variety of disorders, most prominently with neurological defects observed in Down syndrome. To better understand mbk-1’s physiological roles and their dependence on genetic background, we analyzed the influence of mbk-1 loss on the transcriptomes of wildtype and long-lived, germline-deficient or insulin-receptor defective, C. elegans strains by RNA-sequencing. Results mbk-1 loss elicited global changes in transcription that were less pronounced in insulin-receptor mutant than in germline-deficient or wildtype C. elegans. Irrespective of genetic background, mbk-1 regulated genes were enriched for functions in biological processes related to organic acid metabolism and pathogen defense. qPCR-studies confirmed mbk-1 dependent induction of all three C. elegans Δ9-fatty acid desaturases, fat-5, fat-6 and fat-7, in wildtype, germline-deficient and insulin-receptor mutant strains. Conversely, mbk-1 dependent expression patterns of selected pathogen resistance genes, including asp-12, dod-24 and drd-50, differed across the genetic backgrounds examined. Finally, cth-1 and cysl-2, two genes which connect pathogen resistance to the metabolism of the gaseous messenger and lifespan regulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S), were commonly suppressed by mbk-1 loss only in wildtype and germline-deficient, but not in insulin-receptor mutant C. elegans. Conclusion Our work reveals previously unknown roles of C. elegans mbk-1 in the regulation of fatty acid desaturase- and H2S metabolic-genes. These roles are only partially dependent on genetic background. Considering the particular importance of fatty acid desaturation and H2S for longevity of germline-deficient C. elegans, we propose that these processes at least in part account for the previous observation that mbk-1 preferentially regulates lifespan in these worms.


Author(s):  
G. Brizgalov ◽  
L. Ignatovich

Purpose: Assessment of the current state of breeding and tribal work in northern reindeer herding.Due to the specifics of the content and incomplete dignification, breeding and tribal work in reindeer herding differs from other branches of animal husbandry. In the extreme natural conditions of the area, the interaction of the "genotype environment" has a significant impact on the realization of the genetic potential of the individual. The main selection feature of deer, determining all types of productivity - a living mass, an extremely variable phenotypic parameter, fluctuating in different years, by seasons of the year, by farms, which reduces the accuracy of the assessment of population-genetic parameters. In comparison with other pets, the role of natural selection in the microevolution of the reindeer is more substantial. The breeds of reindems relate to the aboriginal and so far do not have ingenust structures included in the state register of breeding achievements admitted to use. Methods for conducting reindeer tests for distinctness, homogeneity and stability, approved by the Government of the Silvering 24.11.2015, for No. 26-12-06, allows you to identify new types and raise breeding and tribal work in reindeer breeding to a higher level. Its main directions are the study, preservation and management of reindeer genetic resources in order to improve existing and creating new competitive types using high-performance genotyping technologies, accurate phenotyping, bio-information and digital technologies.Creation of methodological platforms and development of technologies that contribute to an increase in the implementation of the genetic potential of breeding forms of animals with improved parameters of economic and useful signs. Development of technologies for a lifetime management of meat quality to obtain high quality and safe food. Formation of a new paradigm of the selection process of creating highly productive forms, characterized by high quality indicators. Transformation of the paradigm "reindeer herding" in the conditions of a digital economy and global changes.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1917-1931
Author(s):  
Mohamed El Amrani

Climate change is now an accepted reality. It is felt globally through increased temperature and precipitation regime disruption and increased frequency of extreme events such as floods and droughts. In the absence of effective mitigation and adaptation actions, these changes could have significant negative impact on the sustainability of agriculture and the resilience of populations especially in areas with fragile ecology. However, these changes remain an issue that is difficult to grasp and still not well integrated into management strategies at the farm, sector, and territory levels. The objectives of this research are to describe the production systems, and to study the resilience strategies, perception, and adaptive practices of farms in the Tleta watershed in Northwest Morocco in the face of climate change and landscape dynamics. It describes farming systems and activities, attempts to analyze how farmers perceive global changes in their landscape, and adopts innovative strategies and practices to adapt to them. It also shows that the actions of institutional actors in the area that can contribute to the resilience of the populations are numerous but remain fragmentary and lack integration.


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