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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
S. Malik ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
Hamidullah ◽  
M. A. Iqbal ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan’s herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Idnan ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
M. Tayyab ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. Mansoor ◽  
...  

Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Belmok ◽  
T. Rodrigues-Oliveira ◽  
F.A.C. Lopes ◽  
R.H. Krüger ◽  
C.M. Kyaw

Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting 16S rRNA genes followed by DNA sequencing are still important tools to characterize microbial communities present in environmental samples. However, despite the crescent number of deposited archaeal DNA sequences in databases, until now we do not have a clear picture of the effectiveness and specificity of the universal primers widely used to describe archaeal communities from different natural habitats. Therefore, in this study, we compared the phylogenetic profile obtained when Cerrado lake sediment DNA samples were submitted to 16S rDNA PCR employing three Archaea-specific primer sets commonly used. Our findings reveal that specificity of primers differed depending on the source of the analyzed DNA. Furthermore, archaeal communities revealed by each primer pair varied greatly, indicating that 16S rRNA gene primer choice affects the community profile obtained, with differences in both taxon detection and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) estimates.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caroline M. Weisman ◽  
Andrew M. Murray ◽  
Sean R Eddy

Comparisons of genomes of different species are used to identify lineage-specific genes, those genes that appear unique to one species or clade. Lineage-specific genes are often thought to represent genetic novelty that underlies unique adaptations. Identification of these genes depends not only on genome sequences, but also on inferred gene annotations. Comparative analyses typically use available genomes that have been annotated using different methods, increasing the risk that orthologous DNA sequences may be erroneously annotated as a gene in one species but not another, appearing lineage-specific as a result. To evaluate the impact of such 'annotation heterogeneity', we identified four clades of species with sequenced genomes with more than one publicly available gene annotation, allowing us to compare the number of lineage-specific genes inferred when differing annotation methods are used to those resulting when annotation method is uniform across the clade. In these case studies, annotation heterogeneity increases the apparent number of lineage-specific genes by up to 15-fold, suggesting that annotation heterogeneity is a substantial source of potential artifact.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marco Regolini

Every adult male of the little roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is always and invariably comprised of exactly 1031 somatic cells, not one more, not one less; and so it is for the adult hermaphrodite (959 somatic cells); its intestine founder cell (the ‘E’ blastomere), if isolated and cultured, undergoes the same number of divisions as in the whole embryo (Robertson et al., 2014); the zygote of Drosophila melanogaster executes 13 cycles of asynchronous cell divisions without cellularization: how are these numbers counted? Artificial Intelligence (First and Second Order Logic, Knowledge graph Engineering) infers that, to perform precise stereotypical numbers of asynchronous cell divisions, a nucleic (genomic) counter is indispensable. Made up of tandemly repeated similar monomers, satellite DNA (satDNA) corresponds to iterable objects used in programming. The purpose of this article is to show how satDNA sequences can be iterated over to count a deterministic number of cell divisions: computational models (attached for free download) are introduced that handle DNA repeated sequences as iterable counters and simulate their use in cells through an epigenetic marker (cytosine methylation) as an iterator. SatDNA, because of its propensity to remodel its structure, can also operate as a strong accelerator in the evolution of complex organs and provides a basis to control interspecific variability of shapes.


Author(s):  
Hend Altaib ◽  
Ryo Niwa ◽  
Mayuko Abe ◽  
Tohru Suzuki

Bifidobacterium adolescentis 4-2 was isolated from healthy human feces. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which may clarify the functionality of gut microbiota-brain communication. The draft genome comprises 2.39 Mb, with an average G+C content of 59.2% and 2,028 coding DNA sequences. An operon for GABA biosynthesis was observed in the draft genome.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Ahmet L. Tek ◽  
Sevim D. Kara Öztürk ◽  
Hümeyra Yıldız ◽  
Didem Karalar

Bambara groundnut (<i>Vigna subterranea</i> L. Verdc.) is an un­derutilized minor legume crop with climate resilience and great potential use in world agriculture. This study aimed to cytogenetically characterize the genome and chromosome properties of Bambara groundnut. We cloned, sequenced, and mapped a 50-bp centromere-specific tandem repeat on all chromosomes. In addition, a 400-bp subtelomeric repeat was discovered and mapped on a single pair of chromosomes. A Bambara groundnut karyotype was constructed using these novel repeats along with ribosomal RNA genes (45S and 5S) and telomeric DNA sequences. This study provides the first analysis of the genome and chromosome properties of Bambara groundnut. We discuss our findings in relation to genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut and centromere evolution in legume species.


Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huizheng Wang ◽  
Jinye Gao ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Minghong Fan ◽  
Wei He ◽  
...  

Oxalis corniculata L., which belongs to the family Oxalidaceae R. Br., is a very common perennial herb. It is usually planted on bare land or under the forest as landscaping plants, and the whole plant can be used for its medicinal values of clearing heat, detoxification and detumescence. In August 2019, typical symptoms of anthracnose on O. corniculata leaves were observed in the green belt on the campus of Shandong University of Technology (36.81°N, 117.99°E), Shandong Province, China. The disease incidence was above 40% by investigating more than 300 m2 of planting area. Most of O. corniculata are planted under the forest where the disease is found, mainly in the environment with high relative humidity and less ventilation. The infected leaves appeared initially as tawny oval or irregular spots, and then the lesions enlarged gradually until the leaves became dieback or wholly withered, which greatly reduced the landscape effect of O. corniculata. Diseased leaves were collected by cutting into small pieces and sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s and 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 60 s, rinsed with sterile deionized water for three times. Each air-dried tissue segment was cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25℃ for 5 to 7 days in the dark (Zhu et al. 2013). Fifteen isolates were obtained from 20 symptomatic leaves and the cultures were initially gray white, subsequently became grayish to dark green after 7 days, with copious gray aerial mycelium and black microsclerotia. Three isolates were verified by the amplification of DNA sequences of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), histone H3 (H3) and chitin synthase (CHS1) genes, using the primer pairs GDF1/GDR1, ACT-512F/ACT-783R, CYLH3F/CYLH3R, and CHS-79F/CHS-234R (Damn et al. 2019, Fu et al. 2019, Liu et al. 2013), respectively. The sequenced genes (GenBank accession no. OK017473, OK159078, OK159076, OK159077) shared 99.62 to 100.00% nucleotide identity with the corresponding genes of Colletotrichum truncatum strain UASB-Cc-10 (GenBank accession no. KF322064.1, KF322055.1, KF322073.1, KF319059.1), respectively, which was consistent with the morphological identification (Sawant et al. 2012). Pathogenicity test was performed with six healthy O. corniculata plants infected with mycelial plugs (about 3 mm in diameter) of three C. truncatum isolates from a 5-day-old culture, while the negative controls on the same leaves were inoculated with sterile PDA plugs. All plants were placed in a greenhouse at 25 to 30℃ with 90% relative humidity. The experiment was conducted three times. Five days later, all inoculated leaves appeared brown sunken spots, whereas no symptoms appeared on negative controls. The same pathogens, C. truncatum, were identified from the inoculated leaves on the basis of morphological and molecular characteristics as described above, confirming Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, anthracnose caused by C. truncatum on O. corniculata is the first report in China. The discovery of this new disease is beneficial to the application and protection of O. corniculata, a popular landscape and medicinal plant. References: Damn, U., et al. 2019. Stud. Mycol. 92:1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.simyco.2018.04.001 Fu, M., et al. 2019. Persoonia 42:1. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2019.42.01 Liu, F., et al. 2013. Mycologia 105:844. https://doi.org/10.3852/12-315 Sawant, I. S., et al. 2012. New Dis. Rep. 25:2. https://doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2012.025.002 Zhu, L., et al. 2013. J. Phytopathol. 161:59. https://doi.org/10.1111/jph.12019 The author(s) declare no conflict of interest. Acknowledgments: This research was financially supported by the Top Talents Program for One Case One Discussion of Shandong Province and Academy of Ecological Unmanned Farm (2019ZBXC200).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Albano Pinto ◽  
Catarina Cunha ◽  
Raquel Chaves ◽  
Matthew ER Butchbach ◽  
Filomena Adega

Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are interspersed repetitive DNA sequences with the ability to mobilize in the genome. The recent development of improved tools for evaluating TE-derived sequences in genomic studies has enabled an increasing attention to the contribution of TEs to human development and disease. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease that is caused by deletions or mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN2 gene is a nearly perfect duplication of SMN1. Both genes (collectively known as SMN1/SMN2) are highly enriched in TEs. A comprehensive analysis of TEs insertions in the SMN1/2 loci of SMA carriers, patients and healthy/control individuals was completed to perceive TE dynamics in SMN1/2 and try to establish a link between these elements and SMA.We found an Alu insertion in the promoter region and one L1 element in the 3’UTR that likely play an important role as an alternative promoter and as an alternative terminator to the gene, respectively. Additionally, the several Alu repeats inserted in the genes’ introns influence splicing, giving rise to alternative splicing events that cause RNA circularization and the birth of new alternative exons. These Alu repeats present throughout the genes are also prone to recombination events that can lead to SMN1 exons deletions, that ultimately lead to SMA. The many good and bad implications associated with the presence of TEs inside SMN1/2 make this genomic region ideal for understanding the implications of TEs on genomic evolution as well as on human genomic disease.


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