temperature changes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 579 ◽  
pp. 117364
Kunio Kaiho ◽  
Daisuke Tanaka ◽  
Sylvain Richoz ◽  
David S. Jones ◽  
Ryosuke Saito ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262445
Chao Zhang ◽  
Min Tang ◽  
Xiaodong Gao ◽  
Qiang Ling ◽  
Pute Wu

Various land use types have been implemented by the government in the loess hilly region of China to facilitate sustainable land use. Understanding the variability in soil moisture and temperature under various sloping land use types can aid the ecological restoration and sustainable utilization of sloping land resources. The objective of this study was to use approximate entropy (ApEn) to reveal the variations in soil moisture and temperature under different land use types, because ApEn only requires a short data series to obtain robust estimates, with a strong anti-interference ability. An experiment was conducted with four typical land use scenarios (i.e., soybean sloping field, maize terraced field, jujube orchard, and grassland) over two consecutive plant growing seasons (2014 and 2015), and the time series of soil moisture and temperature within different soil depth layers of each land use type were measured in both seasons. The results showed that the changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture in the 0–160 cm soil depth layer, as well as the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature in the 0–100 cm soil layer increased in the jujube orchard over the two growing seasons. The changing amplitude, degree of variation, and active layer of soil moisture all decreased in the maize terraced field, as did the changing amplitude and degree of variation of soil temperature. The ApEn of the soil moisture series was the lowest in the 0–160 cm soil layer in the maize terraced field, and the ApEn of the soil temperature series was the highest in the 0–100 cm layer in the jujube orchard in the two growing seasons. Finally, the jujube orchard soil moisture and temperature change process were more variable, whereas the changes in the maize terraced field were more stable, with a stable soil moisture and temperature. This work highlights the usefulness of ApEn for revealing soil moisture and temperature changes and to guide the management and development of sloping fields.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Yongkai Sun ◽  
Xi Luo ◽  
Hui Ming

Owing to movement in the spatial environment and changes in activity levels, students’ thermal perception is time varying in classrooms throughout different periods of the day. However, previous studies have rarely considered the time-varying thermal perception in different periods of the day, which may cause discomfort for students and lead to energy wastage. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the time-varying thermal perception of students and its influencing factors in different classes of the day. In addition, the differences in students’ adaptive behaviors in different periods were also explored. A total of 578 university students were surveyed using questionnaire surveys during the heating season in Xi’an, China. The following results can be obtained: (1) The thermal sensation vote and thermal preference vote values in the afternoon were significantly higher than those in the morning. At the start of the first class in the morning/afternoon, the thermal sensation of the students had the highest sensitivity to outdoor temperature changes. (2) The students’ thermal perception was greatly affected by the preclass activity state at the start of the first class in the morning/afternoon. However, in other periods, the above phenomenon was not obvious. (3) In the afternoon, the frequency of clothing adjustment was greater than that in the morning, and this behavior would significantly affect the students’ thermal sensation. (4) Compared with the current classroom heating strategy, the heating strategy of dynamically adjusting the indoor set temperature according to the time-varying characteristics of the students can theoretically achieve energy savings of 25.6%.

Climate ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Emmanuel Dubois ◽  
Marie Larocque ◽  
Sylvain Gagné ◽  
Marco Braun

Long-term changes in precipitation and temperature indirectly impact aquifers through groundwater recharge (GWR). Although estimates of future GWR are needed for water resource management, they are uncertain in cold and humid climates due to the wide range in possible future climatic conditions. This work aims to (1) simulate the impacts of climate change on regional GWR for a cold and humid climate and (2) identify precipitation and temperature changes leading to significant long-term changes in GWR. Spatially distributed GWR is simulated in a case study for the southern Province of Quebec (Canada, 36,000 km2) using a water budget model. Climate scenarios from global climate models indicate warming temperatures and wetter conditions (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5; 1951–2100). The results show that annual precipitation increases of >+150 mm/yr or winter precipitation increases of >+25 mm will lead to significantly higher GWR. GWR is expected to decrease if the precipitation changes are lower than these thresholds. Significant GWR changes are produced only when the temperature change exceeds +2 °C. Temperature changes of >+4.5 °C limit the GWR increase to +30 mm/yr. This work provides useful insights into the regional assessment of future GWR in cold and humid climates, thus helping in planning decisions as climate change unfolds. The results are expected to be comparable to those in other regions with similar climates in post-glacial geological environments and future climate change conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 906 ◽  
pp. 69-76
Tigran Petrosyan

In order to study the effect of temperature changes on the dissipative properties of materials, two approaches are used. The first approach implies introducing some temperature function under the sign of the integral in the heredity theory equation and simultaneously taking into account the dependence of the elastic modulus on temperature. As a result, based on experimental data on the thermal creep of soils, the expression for determining the hysteresis energy losses under the periodic voltage changes was obtained depending on temperature changes.According to the second approach, the expression for determining the hysteresis energy losses under isothermal conditions at different temperatures was obtained by introducing into the heredity theory equation an approximation of the experimental dependences of instantaneous deformation and temperature creep parameters for steel Kh18 N10T.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 612
Senem Onen Cinar ◽  
Abdullah Nsair ◽  
Nils Wieczorek ◽  
Kerstin Kuchta

Temperature management is one of the primary considerations of biogas plant operation, and influences physical and biochemical processes. An increase in the temperature leads to an increase in the hydrolysis rate of the feedstock, while it can inhibit microorganisms taking part in different stages of anaerobic digestion. Because of the complexity of the biochemical processes within the anaerobic digestion process, there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of temperature and temperature change on efficiency. Moreover, the impact of stirring directly affects the temperature distribution in the anaerobic digestion reactors. In this study, the temperature management in an industrial-scale biogas plant was examined, and the effect of small temperature changes (from the operation temperature 42 °C) on the efficiency was studied in a laboratory under two different conditions: with stirring (at 40 and 44 °C) and without stirring (at 40 and 44 °C). The examination results from the biogas plant showed that heat transfer in the reactor was not sufficient at the bottom of the digester. Adaptation of the post-digester samples to the temperature changes was more challenging than that of the digester samples. From digestate samples, higher biomethane generation could be obtained, resulting from sufficient contact between microorganisms, enzymes, and substrates. Overall, differences between these changing conditions (approx. 6 NmL CH4 g VS−1) were not significant and could be adapted by the process.

2022 ◽  
Saeed Darki ◽  
Evgeniy Yurevich Raskatov

Abstract In this study, considering all the parameters in radial forging and a three-dimensional model has been simulated using the finite element method. By implementing an elastoplastic state for the specimen tube, parameters such as friction type, residual stress distribution, effective strain distribution, material flow velocity and its effect on the neutral plate and the distribution of force in the die have been studied and analyzed. The effects of angle on the quality and characteristics of the specimen and the longevity of the die have also been obtained. Experimental results have been used to confirm the accuracy of the simulation. The results of the hardness test after forging were compared with the simulation results. Good agreement between the results indicates the accuracy of the simulation in terms of hardness. Therefore, this validation allows confirming the other obtained results for the analysis and prediction of various components in the forging process. After the validation and confirmation of the results through the hardness test, the hardness distribution was obtained by considering temperature changes and the effective strain on the specimen.

Nature ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 601 (7891) ◽  
pp. 69-73
Artem Chanyshev ◽  
Takayuki Ishii ◽  
Dmitry Bondar ◽  
Shrikant Bhat ◽  
Eun Jeong Kim ◽  

AbstractThe 660-kilometre seismic discontinuity is the boundary between the Earth’s lower mantle and transition zone and is commonly interpreted as being due to the dissociation of ringwoodite to bridgmanite plus ferropericlase (post-spinel transition)1–3. A distinct feature of the 660-kilometre discontinuity is its depression to 750 kilometres beneath subduction zones4–10. However, in situ X-ray diffraction studies using multi-anvil techniques have demonstrated negative but gentle Clapeyron slopes (that is,  the ratio between pressure and temperature changes) of the post-spinel transition that do not allow a significant depression11–13. On the other hand, conventional high-pressure experiments face difficulties in accurate phase identification due to inevitable pressure changes during heating and the persistent presence of metastable phases1,3. Here we determine the post-spinel and akimotoite–bridgmanite transition boundaries by multi-anvil experiments using in situ X-ray diffraction, with the boundaries strictly based on the definition of phase equilibrium. The post-spinel boundary has almost no temperature dependence, whereas the akimotoite–bridgmanite transition has a very steep negative boundary slope at temperatures lower than ambient mantle geotherms. The large depressions of the 660-kilometre discontinuity in cold subduction zones are thus interpreted as the akimotoite–bridgmanite transition. The steep negative boundary of the akimotoite–bridgmanite transition will cause slab stagnation (a stalling of the slab’s descent) due to significant upward buoyancy14,15.

Yanwei Qi ◽  
Yuhong Zhang ◽  
Quankai Mu ◽  
Guixing Zheng ◽  
Mengxin Zhang ◽  

The development of Plasmodium parasites, a causative agent of malaria, requests two hosts and the completion of 11 different parasite stages during development. Therefore, an efficient and fast response of parasites to various complex environmental changes, such as ambient temperature, pH, ions, and nutrients, is essential for parasite development and survival. Among many of these environmental changes, temperature is a decisive factor for parasite development and pathogenesis, including the thermoregulation of rRNA expression, gametogenesis, and parasite sequestration in cerebral malaria. However, the exact mechanism of how Plasmodium parasites rapidly respond and adapt to temperature change remains elusive. As a fundamental and pervasive regulator of gene expression, RNA structure can be a specific mechanism for fine tuning various biological processes. For example, dynamic and temperature-dependent changes in RNA secondary structures can control the expression of different gene programs, as shown by RNA thermometers. In this study, we applied the in vitro and in vivo transcriptomic-wide secondary structurome approach icSHAPE to measure parasite RNA structure changes with temperature alteration at single-nucleotide resolution for ring and trophozoite stage parasites. Among 3,000 probed structures at different temperatures, our data showed structural changes in the global transcriptome, such as S-type rRNA, HRPII gene, and the erythrocyte membrane protein family. When the temperature drops from 37°C to 26°C, most of the genes in the trophozoite stage cause significantly more changes to the RNA structure than the genes in the ring stage. A multi-omics analysis of transcriptome data from RNA-seq and RNA structure data from icSHAPE reveals that the specific RNA secondary structure plays a significant role in the regulation of transcript expression for parasites in response to temperature changes. In addition, we identified several RNA thermometers (RNATs) that responded quickly to temperature changes. The possible thermo-responsive RNAs in Plasmodium falciparum were further mapped. To this end, we identified dynamic and temperature-dependent RNA structural changes in the P. falciparum transcriptome and performed a comprehensive characterization of RNA secondary structures over the course of temperature stress in blood stage development. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the function of the RNA secondary structure but may also provide novel targets for efficient vaccines or drugs.

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