risky decision
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Yao Lv

In the new situation of Internet plus, information technology has been widely applied in education, and hence online education has attracted wide attention from all walks of life. Today’s society is a risk society, and risk is everywhere. Online education reform is also risky, which is determined by many reasons. Some risks will cause certain losses to the online education reform, so based on risky decision-making, it is necessary to carry out online education reform under the new situation of Internet plus. At first, the risky decision-making in online education reform is analyzed, which is the risk of online education reform in risk society and the allocation logic of online education reform. Then, taking interval type-2 fuzzy logic (IT2FL) as the information environment, this study proposes the optimal risky decision-making method based on IT2FL utility functions, IT2FL entropy, and risk preference factor of online education reform to solve the multipath risky decision-making problem of online education reform. Finally, the experimental results show that, in the risky decision-making model, the decision-maker’s risk preference has an impact on the path weight and the ranking of the scheme, and the idea has a certain reference role for risky decision-making. Compared with the three benchmarks, the proposed method has the fewest ranking time with the same ranking results.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Jose A Fernandez-Leon ◽  
Douglas S Engelke ◽  
Guillermo Aquino-Miranda ◽  
Alexandria Goodson ◽  
Maria N Rasheed ◽  

The recollection of environmental cues associated with threat or reward allows animals to select the most appropriate behavioral responses. Neurons in the prelimbic cortex (PL) respond to both threat- and reward-associated cues. However, it remains unknown whether PL regulates threat-avoidance vs. reward-approaching responses when an animals' decision depends on previously associated memories. Using a conflict model in which male Long-Evans rats retrieve memories of shock- and food-paired cues, we observed two distinct phenotypes during conflict: i) rats that continued to press a lever for food (Pressers); and ii) rats that exhibited a complete suppression in food seeking (Non-pressers). Single-unit recordings revealed that increased risk-taking behavior in Pressers is associated with persistent food-cue responses in PL, and reduced spontaneous activity in PL glutamatergic (PLGLUT) neurons during conflict. Activating PLGLUT neurons in Pressers attenuated food-seeking responses in a neutral context, whereas inhibiting PLGLUT neurons in Non-pressers reduced defensive responses and increased food approaching during conflict. Our results establish a causal role for PLGLUT neurons in mediating individual variability in memory-based risky decision making by regulating threat-avoidance vs. reward-approach behaviors.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Fatemeh Bagherian ◽  
Nazir Mozafari ◽  
Ali Zadeh Mohammadi ◽  
Mahmood Heidari

Background: Adolescence is defined as a period with multiple and intertwined physical, psychological, and social developments during which risky behaviors increases. Various factors affect the tendency and occurrence of risky behaviors. Time perspective (TP) is defined as the role of time and attitude toward time in affairs and behaviors. Executive functioning skills allow an individual to perceive stimuli from his or her environment, respond adaptively, flexibly change direction, anticipate future goals, consider consequences, and respond in an integrated or commonsense way. Objectives: This study aimed to predict risky behaviors based on TP in Iranian adolescents by emphasizing the mediating role of decision making and inhibitory response. Patients and Methods: Path analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between components of TP and risky behaviors with mediator variables, decision making, and inhibitory response among 804 high school adolescent students (including 470 males and 334 females) in Sanandaj, Iran. All participants were asked to complete the Iranian Adolescent Risk Scale and Time Perspective Scale and perform 2 computer tasks [i.e., Go/No-Go and Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)]. SPSS version 26 and AMOS version 24 were used to analyze direct and indirect relationships. Results: There was a significant relationship between the components of TP and the tendency to risky behaviors. Risky decision-making and inhibitory response had a significant effect on 3 aspects of TP in predicting adolescents’ risky behaviors. These effects were both direct and indirect, of which the former effect was created by mediating the decision-making and inhibitory response. Conclusions: The components of TP, decision-making, and inhibitory response predict risky behaviors in adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Anna. E. Liley ◽  
Haleigh N. Joyner ◽  
Daniel B.K. Gabriel ◽  
Nicholas W. Simon

2021 ◽  
Ming-Chen Zhang

The current research proposal envisages designing three experiments (the flow chart see Figure 6). While both the experimental approach and the design have their strengths and limitations, they will complement one another. In study 1, I sought to investigate the rewards and losses sensitivity under monetary and social competitive context by using two edited versions of classic experimental paradigms (the doors task and the island getaway task) and manipulating two ambiguity competitive contexts in order to adapt the invisible competitive pressure in the real society (Levinson et al., 2017). In study 2 and study 3, I intend to use the monetary and social BART to measure the risk preference under monetary-drive and social-drive competition. Study 2 will focus primarily on one-on-one competitive context while study 3 will replicate the similar influence in multi-people competition. In these two studies, social reference points will be considered as an important moderator in both monetary and social competition. The distance (far and near) of social reference points will also be included in these two studies.

2021 ◽  
Andrea Kóbor ◽  
Eszter Tóth-Fáber ◽  
Zsofia Kardos ◽  
Ádám Takács ◽  
Noémi Éltető ◽  

Beliefs about positive and negative outcome probabilities have been frequently investigated in experience-based risky decision making. However, it has not been clarified how these beliefs emerge and whether they remain persistent if the predictability and complexity of outcome probabilities change across decision contexts. Hence, the present study manipulated these two factors in a variant of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task performed by healthy young adults. In the first and final task phases, outcomes (rewards or balloon bursts) were predictable because of the presence of an underlying regularity. In the middle phase, outcomes were unpredictable because the regularity was absent. The complexity of the regularity differed across the deterministic, probabilistic, and hybrid experimental conditions. In the simple deterministic condition, a repeating sequence of three deterministic regularities perfectly predicted balloon bursts. In the more complex probabilistic condition, a single probabilistic regularity ensured that the probability of balloon bursts increased with each successive pump. In the most complex hybrid condition, a repeating sequence of three different probabilistic regularities increased burst probabilities. Even without informing participants about the presence or absence of the regularity, sensitivity to both the simple deterministic and the most complex hybrid regularities emerged and influenced risk taking. Unpredictable outcomes of the middle phase did not deteriorate the acquired sensitivity to these regularities. When only a single probabilistic regularity was present, predictable and unpredictable outcomes were processed similarly. In conclusion, assuming the reappearance of the initially experienced regularity, the robustness of representations might serve fast adaptation in a volatile decision environment.

2021 ◽  
pp. 102112
John R. Purcell ◽  
Emma N. Herms ◽  
Jaime Morales ◽  
P. William ◽  
Hetrick ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 491-509 ◽  
Valerie F. Reyna ◽  
David A. Broniatowski ◽  
Sarah M. Edelson

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