adolescent risk
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 215013192110626
Catherine P. Dunn ◽  
Joan B. Riley ◽  
Kirsten B. Hawkins ◽  
Kenneth P. Tercyak

Introduction/Objectives: An unhealthy relationship with food can lead to disordered eating in adolescence, highlighting the importance of screening. This study describes the frequency of disordered eating behavior among female adolescents, as well as associated characteristics and health behaviors. Methods: Data are from a multidimensional risk factor screening survey administered at a university medical center’s adolescent clinic from 2016 to 2018. The instrument was adapted from existing screening tools such as the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS), the American Medical Association’s Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS), and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Analysis was limited to self-reported responses provided by females aged 10 to 21 years (N = 915). Statistical analyses included chi-square tests and independent sample T-tests. Results: Of the N = 915 females who reported on disordered eating behavior, n = 57 (6.2%) had engaged in some form of disordered eating behavior within the past 12 months. Disordered eating was significantly associated ( P < .001) with not consistently wearing a helmet while biking, having tried e-cigarettes, being bullied in the past 30 days, having an adverse childhood experience (ACE), and being African American ( P = .005). Subgroup analysis of the relationship between disordered eating and bullying, by race, yielded significant findings: disordered eating was more highly associated with being bullied in the past 30 days among African American females ( P = .038). The relationship between disordered eating and ACE was also significant ( P < .001) among Caucasian girls when stratified by race. Conclusions: Adolescent risk behaviors often co-occur, and disordered eating behavior may be differentially observed by race. Findings highlight the importance of education and screening to prevent the development of disordered eating, and identify those who may be struggling. These results can be useful to community health education and in healthcare to develop and implement health promotion and eating disorder prevention strategies. Further studies are needed to assess additional factors that promote or protect against disordered eating to improve prevention.

Sophia N Nesamoney ◽  
Iván Mejía-Guevara ◽  
Ann M Weber ◽  
Beniamino Cislaghi ◽  
Michael T Mbizvo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Kirsty Alderson ◽  
Carol A. Ireland ◽  
Roxanne Khan ◽  
Jane L. Ireland ◽  
Michael Lewis

Purpose This paper aims to examine the prevalence of child sexual exploitation (CSE) and factors connected in a young adult population, through a series of connected studies. Each study considered exposure to poly-victimisation. The series of studies focussed on a number of factors felt to impact vulnerability and protective factors towards CSE. Specifically caregiver bonds, resilience and attachment style, adolescent risk-taking, quality of caregiver bonds, level/type of supportive relationships and positive schemas, as well as the impact of CSE disclosure and links to attachment style and maladaptive schemas. Design/methodology/approach These studies looked at a young adult population, mainly women. Study one (n = 263), study two (n = 138) and study three (n = 211), predominantly collected via a series of online measures. Findings Findings demonstrated that around half of children under 16 years had been approached sexually by an adult, with approximately one in four children subsequently exploited. Various results were noted, such as experiencing a primary caregiver as lacking in warmth and affection was associated with those reporting CSE, with further exposure to poly-victimisation contributing to a less functional coping style and insecure attachments. CSE was not associated with higher levels of adolescent risk-taking, poor bonds with the primary caregiver, fewer important childhood relationships and positive schemas. Practical implications This paper notes the importance of addressing the functions of behaviours for victims, to reduce re-victimisation risk. It noted the importance of applying theory when working with this population. It introduced the protect and vulnerability model against CSE and has practical applications for professionals working with victims of CSE. This paper argues the importance of individualised assessments for children who are deemed to be “at-risk” of CSE. Originality/value Findings were combined to propose the protection against the CSE model and the application of this to intervention and future research is acknowledged.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Fatemeh Bagherian ◽  
Nazir Mozafari ◽  
Ali Zadeh Mohammadi ◽  
Mahmood Heidari

Background: Adolescence is defined as a period with multiple and intertwined physical, psychological, and social developments during which risky behaviors increases. Various factors affect the tendency and occurrence of risky behaviors. Time perspective (TP) is defined as the role of time and attitude toward time in affairs and behaviors. Executive functioning skills allow an individual to perceive stimuli from his or her environment, respond adaptively, flexibly change direction, anticipate future goals, consider consequences, and respond in an integrated or commonsense way. Objectives: This study aimed to predict risky behaviors based on TP in Iranian adolescents by emphasizing the mediating role of decision making and inhibitory response. Patients and Methods: Path analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between components of TP and risky behaviors with mediator variables, decision making, and inhibitory response among 804 high school adolescent students (including 470 males and 334 females) in Sanandaj, Iran. All participants were asked to complete the Iranian Adolescent Risk Scale and Time Perspective Scale and perform 2 computer tasks [i.e., Go/No-Go and Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)]. SPSS version 26 and AMOS version 24 were used to analyze direct and indirect relationships. Results: There was a significant relationship between the components of TP and the tendency to risky behaviors. Risky decision-making and inhibitory response had a significant effect on 3 aspects of TP in predicting adolescents’ risky behaviors. These effects were both direct and indirect, of which the former effect was created by mediating the decision-making and inhibitory response. Conclusions: The components of TP, decision-making, and inhibitory response predict risky behaviors in adolescents.

Lisa Buckley ◽  
Mary Sheehan ◽  
Kelly Dingli ◽  
Bianca Reveruzzi ◽  
Veronica Horgan

Injury is a leading cause of adolescent deaths, with risk-taking associated with a sizeable proportion of injuries and many of those risks undertaken in the presence of peers or with peers’ knowledge. Novel ways to promote safety are required and using the peer-relationship may be an important mechanism for prevention. This study reports on the implementation evaluation of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) program. SPIY is a high-school program designed to reduce injury by encouraging peers to look out for one another and prevent risk-taking, complemented by developing peer helping and first aid skills as well as school connectedness. 152 students and 12 teachers who delivered SPIY participated in separate 30 min focus groups and reported on students’ understanding of peer protective behaviour and the program implementation (adherence, dose, quality of program delivery, and participant responsiveness). Students reported on many approaches to protecting friends and both students and teachers reported they found the program interesting, interactive, and able to be delivered. Peer protection messages were relevant and acceptable to teachers and students in a risk-taking harm reduction program to reduce adolescent injury.

2021 ◽  
pp. 074355842110645
Nicole R. Skaar

The goal of this project was to substantiate a more positive conceptualization of adolescent risk behavior and to compare adolescent viewpoints of risk behavior to the items on the Prosocial and Health Adolescent Risk Behavior Scale (PHARBS). A total of 57 high school students participated in the research. Researchers recruited students from an Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology course at a large Midwestern high school. The high school serves approximately 1,750 students in grades 9 through 12. The university Institutional Review Board approved the study procedures. Families provided informed consent, and students assented to participating in one of eight focus group discussions. The focus groups were audio taped, transcribed, and coded. Researchers analyzed the coded data using word count analysis. Students discussed prosocial risk behaviors in addition to health risk behaviors, providing support for the PHARBS and suggesting that adolescents view taking some risks as positive. A more positive conceptualization of risk behavior may better align with how adolescents view risk behavior. Researchers and clinicians might approach adolescent risk behavior measurement and research on the importance of understanding risk behaviors as a normal and potentially positive aspect of adolescent development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 100985
Aja Louise Murray ◽  
Jessica Hafetz Mirman ◽  
Lara Carter ◽  
Manuel Eisner

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xiaosheng Dong ◽  
Lijie Ding ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Meng Ding ◽  
Baozhen Wang ◽  

Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior, physical activity and physical fitness among Chinese adolescents.Methods: This study randomly selected adolescents from 10 administrative districts in Shandong, China. The data gathering tools for demographic and other characteristics (gender, age, body mass index and socioeconomic status), PA (PAQ-A) and screen-based sedentary behavior (YRBSS) and physical fitness (NSPFH 2014) were utilized in this study. Statistical analysis was performed by T-test, chi-square test and multiple linear regression.Results: 10,002 adolescents (14.39 years ± 1.79) participated in the study. The results demonstrated that BMI and high TV viewing time had a significant negative correlation with physical fitness, but there was no association between the amount of time spent playing computer/video games and physical fitness among adolescents. High SES and physical activity in leisure time five or more times per week were significantly associated with most dimensions of physical fitness.Conclusions: the results suggest that we not only need to focus on adolescent risk behavior associated with low socioeconomic status and obesity, but also enforce physical activity and reduce sedentary television-watching behavior, which will be crucial pathways and strategies to improve the physical fitness of Chinese adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 61 ◽  
pp. 100979
Simon Ciranka ◽  
Wouter van den Bos

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