Natural organic matter affect water environmental security and posed a potential threat to human health, and thus it has long been considered as a key index to evaluate water treatment performance. Dissolved organic nitrogen is one of the NOM, which produces some disinfection byproducts having more toxic than those carbon-based materials. Coagulation is a key unit of drinking water purification and has received wide attention. However, conventional flocculation technology on removal of DON is so poor that we have to seek more effective improving measurement. The combined use of conventional flocculant and organic polymer can improve treatment efficiency to a certain extent, and enhanced coagulation can also improve the DON removal rate, but their DON removal performance is still not dreamful. At present, there is a lack of systematic research on flocculation to remove DON. Although some achievements have been made, there is still a big gap between the preparation technology of flocculant and the goal of efficient removal of DON in water.For treatment of secondary effluent of industrial wastewater, some studies show that the use of Fe3O4 mainly has the effect of accelerating separation, but the adsorption effect is not good. However, with the synergistic flocculation of amino functionalized Fe3O4 it has a good effect on removing water protein, polysaccharide and humic acid, which can meet the water quality discharge standard and reduce the dosage of flocculant. The above results show that functional nanoparticle materials are of great significance to improve the adsorption and flocculation performance. Therefore, the functional modification of magnetic nanoparticles plays an important role.
AbstractSwimming pools and spas require a high hygiene level, and therefore constant cleaning. In this study, cleaning workers’ exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), trichloramine (TCA), and particulate matter (PM) in the swimming pools and spas were evaluated. Also, statistical methods were employed to determine what activities affect the exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The study was conducted in 32 swimming pools and spas. The measurement locations were pool areas, bathrooms, and locker rooms, both during cleaning and opening hours. During the cleaning, the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations were low, on average 96, 251, and 91 µg/m3 for locker rooms, bathrooms, and pool areas, respectively. Similarly, during the opening hours, the TVOC concentrations were on average 78, 125, and 83 µg/m3, for locker rooms, bathrooms, and pool areas, respectively. This is in line with previous studies investigating cleaning work in other environments. The most prevalent compounds during the cleaning were 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGBE), 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (DEGEE), 2-butyl-1-octanol, trichloromethane (chloroform), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and carbon tetrachloride. The most prevalent compounds during the opening hours were D5, D-limonene, carbon tetrachloride (bathrooms and pool areas), and trichloromethane (bathrooms and pool areas). The TCA concentrations during the cleaning in the bathrooms and pool areas were on average 60 and 67 µg/m3, respectively, and during the opening hours, 28 and 122 µg/m3, respectively. The use of disinfectants was found to increase the TCA concentration in the bathrooms, while the other cleaning products did not. Even though the TCA concentrations were below the WHO’s guideline and the Finnish occupational exposure limit value of 500 µg/m3, the measured TCA levels were occasionally high enough to pose a risk of irritative symptoms. The PM concentrations were low, both in the real-time monitoring (aerodynamic diameter, Dae ≤ 15 µm) and inhalable dust samples (Dae ≤ 100 µm). Highest measured inhalable dust concentration was 350 µg/m3, well below the Finnish occupational limit value of 5,000 µg/m3 for organic inhalable dust.