systematic research
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Cristoforo Guccione ◽  
Raffaella Rubino ◽  
Claudia Colomba ◽  
Antonio Anastasia ◽  
Valentina Caputo ◽  

Background: Motivated by a case finding of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) associated with atypical pneumonia and pleural effusion in which Rickettsia conorii subsp. israelensis was identified by molecular methods in the pleural fluid, we wanted to summarize the clinical presentations of rickettsiosis in Italy by systematic research and to make a systematic review of all the global cases of rickettsiosis associated with pleural effusion. Methods: For the literature search, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was followed. We chose to select only the studies published in last 25 years and confirmed both with serological and molecular assays. Results: Human cases of rickettsiosis in Italy were reported in 48 papers describing 2831 patients with very different clinical presentations; the majority was MSF accounted to R. conorii and was reported in Sicily. Pleural effusion associated with infection with microorganisms belonging to Rickettsiales was described in 487 patients. It was rarely associated with microorganisms different from O. tsutsugamushi; also rarely, cases of scrub typhus were reported outside Southeast Asia and in the largest majority, the diagnosis was achieved with serology. Conclusions: MSF, especially when caused by R. conorii subsp. israelensis, may be a severe disease. A high index of suspicion is required to promptly start life-saving therapy. Pleural effusion and interstitial pneumonia may be part of the clinical picture of severe rickettsial disease and should not lead the physician away from this diagnosis

2022 ◽  
pp. 096100062110675
Abolfazl Asadnia ◽  
Mehrdad CheshmehSohrabi ◽  
Ahmad Shabani ◽  
Asefeh Asemi ◽  
Mohsen Taheri Demneh

Many organizations and businesses are using futurology to keep pace with the ever-increasing changes in the world, as the businesses and organizations need to be updated to achieve organizational and business growth and development. A review of the previous studies has shown that no systematic research has been already conducted on the future of information retrieval systems and the role of library and information science experts in the future of such systems. Therefore, a qualitative study was conducted by reviewing resources, consulting experts, doing interaction analysis, and writing scenarios. The results demonstrated 13 key factors affecting the future of information retrieval systems in the form of two driving forces of social determinism and technological determinism, and four scenarios of Canopus star, Ursa major, Ursa minor, and single star. The results also showed the dominance of technology and social demand and its very important role in the future of information retrieval systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-18
Kathryn A. Stofer ◽  
James Fulton ◽  
Heather Nesbitt ◽  
Anna Prizzia ◽  
Karen A. Garrett ◽  

For farmers to adopt and maintain sustainable farming practices, they must have the resources and network to succeed with this work and must realize a positive impact on their business model. As a food system is ultimately made up of the people, organizations, and institutions that grow, move, buy and sell food, we must understand who is at the center of this network, who is well-connected, and who is peripheral. Within a particular regional food system in a highly productive southeastern U.S. state, the network of local producers interested in sustainable production, including environmental and economic components, seems to be growing. However, it is unclear who benefits from this system and whether this system is growing in a way that encourages and enhances the benefits for sustainable agriculture. Existing evidence for the network size and its vulnerabilities has been anecdotal, from Extension agents and their contacts with individual producers, rather than based on systematic research. We used social network analysis to understand the status of the system and its constituents. Connections between producers appear to be weak overall with potential fragmentation, suggesting a fragility that could easily derail efforts to increase sustainable production in the region.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-46
Paola Vanessa Navarrete Cuesta ◽  
Alberto Medina Fernández

Introduction. This systematic research synthesis investigated the effectiveness of Task-based language teaching interventions on L2 writing performance of intermediate level students. Objective. The main aim was to determine the effects of independent variable manipulations of task-based language teaching on different modes of writing measured holistically and by means of CALF constructs. Methodology. The integration of qualitative and quantitative data was carried out by means of a systematic literature search and retrieval of published articles from 2010 until September 2011. Substantive and methodological features of the studies were coded and compared for the identification of commonly used practices and trends within the Task-based language teaching and L2 writing research domain. Results. The results indicate 3 major types of task-based interventions: TBLT framework, task complexity manipulations and task planning conditions have prevailed as treatments. Task complexity treatments have had beneficial effects on measures of fluency and lexical complexity while strategic planning and planning time also favored fluency in L2 writing. In turn, TBLT framework lesson treatments yielded large effects measured as Cohen’s d. Conclusion. In spite of the wide variety of treatment conditions and outcome measures for different modes of L2 writing, support is given to the importance of the pre-task cycle stage management of TBLT for intermediate level learners.

2022 ◽  
Dedi Ardinata

Evidence-based medicine (EBM), which emphasizes that medical decisions must be based on the most recent best evidence, is gaining popularity. Individual clinical expertise is combined with the best available external clinical evidence derived from systematic research in the practice of EBM. The key and core of EBM is the hierarchical system for categorizing evidence. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) system divides evidence quality into four categories: high, moderate, low, and very low. GRADE is based on the lowest quality of evidence for any of the outcomes that are critical to making a decision, reducing the risk of mislabeling the overall evidence quality, when evidence for a critical outcome is lacking. This principle is also used in acupuncture as a complementary and integrative treatment modality, but incorporating scientific evidence is more difficult due to a number of factors. The goal of this chapter is to discuss how to establish a clinical evidence system for acupuncture, with a focus on the current quality of evidence for a variety of conditions or diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Jessica S. Kruger ◽  
Daniel J. Kruger

Abstract Background Products containing delta-8-THC became widely available in most of the USA following the 2018 Farm Bill and by late 2020 were core products of hemp processing companies, especially where delta-9-THC use remained illegal or required medical authorization. Research on experiences with delta-8-THC is scarce, some state governments have prohibited it because of this lack of knowledge. Objective We conducted an exploratory study addressing a broad range of issues regarding delta-8-THC to inform policy discussions and provide directions for future systematic research. Methods We developed an online survey for delta-8-THC consumers, including qualities of delta-8-THC experiences, comparisons with delta-9-THC, and open-ended feedback. The survey included quantitative and qualitative aspects to provide a rich description and content for future hypothesis testing. Invitations to participate were distributed by a manufacturer of delta-8-THC products via social media accounts, email contact list, and the Delta8 discussion board. Participants (N = 521) mostly identified as White/European American (90%) and male (57%). Pairwise t tests compared delta-8-THC effect rating items; one-sample t tests examined responses to delta-9-THC comparison items. Results Most delta-8-THC users experienced a lot or a great deal of relaxation (71%); euphoria (68%) and pain relief (55%); a moderate amount or a lot of cognitive distortions such as difficulty concentrating (81%), difficulties with short-term memory (80%), and alerted sense of time (74%); and did not experience anxiety (74%) or paranoia (83%). Participants generally compared delta-8-THC favorably with both delta-9-THC and pharmaceutical drugs, with most participants reporting substitution for delta-9-THC (57%) and pharmaceutical drugs (59%). Participant concerns regarding delta-8-THC were generally focused on continued legal access. Conclusions Delta-8-THC may provide much of the experiential benefits of delta-9-THC with lesser adverse effects. Future systematic research is needed to confirm participant reports, although these studies are hindered by the legal statuses of both delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC. Cross-sector collaborations among academics, government officials, and representatives from the cannabis industry may accelerate the generation of knowledge regarding delta-8-THC and other cannabinoids. A strength of this study is that it is the first large survey of delta-8 users, limitations include self-report data from a self-selected convenience sample.

Diversity ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Jinze Ren ◽  
Shuying Li ◽  
Mengdi He ◽  
Yalin Zhang

The Qinling Mountains are one of the oldest mountain ranges in China and a global biodiversity research and conservation hotspot. However, there is a lack of systematic research and survey of butterfly diversity in this region. Based on the butterfly taxa, combined with the changes in natural climate, altitude gradient and season in the Qinling Mountains, the butterfly diversity and community structure changes in 12 counties in the middle Qinling Mountains were analyzed by transect surveys and platform data analyses. A total of 9626 butterflies were observed, belonging to 427 species across 175 genera and 5 families. The species richness on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains was higher than on the northern slope. We also studied the variation in alpha and beta diversity of butterflies. The results show that butterfly species were abundant and the highest diversity was found at the middle altitudes (1000–2000 m). Moreover, there were obvious seasonal differences in both species and number of butterflies. The community similarity in spring, summer and autumn was low, with limited species co-existing. The butterflies in the Qinling Mountains reserve area were the most abundant, exhibiting no significant difference with those in the ecotone and the farm area. Finally, we did an assessment of butterflies as endangered and protected species. In conclusion, our long-term butterfly survey data show that human disturbance and climate and environmental changes jointly shape the butterfly diversity in the middle of the Qinling Mountains.

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e055985
Jiyeon Kang ◽  
John Cairns

IntroductionDue to the limitations of relying on randomised controlled trials, the potential benefits of real-world data (RWD) in enriching evidence for health technology assessment (HTA) are highlighted. Despite increased interest in RWD, there is limited systematic research investigating how RWD have been used in HTA. The main purpose of this protocol is to extract relevant data from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) appraisals in a transparent and reproducible manner in order to determine how NICE has incorporated a broader range of evidence in the appraisal of oncology medicines.Methods and analysisThe appraisals issued between January 2011 and May 2021 are included following inclusion criteria. The data extraction tool newly developed for this research includes the critical components of economic evaluation. The information is extracted from identified appraisals in accordance with extraction rules. The data extraction tool will be validated by a second researcher independently. The extracted data will be analysed quantitatively to investigate to what extent RWD have been used in appraisals. This is the first protocol to enable data to be extracted comprehensively and systematically in order to review the use of RWD.Ethics and disseminationThis study is approved by the Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine on 14 November 2019 (17315). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

2022 ◽  
pp. 194-234

This chapter uses the normative research methodology to review the literature for business research and analysis to search for a set of tools that can provide a comprehensive analysis methodology. The investigation of competitive advantage follows the dynamic capability of the subjective approach to the resource-based view (RBV). This view needs to establish the current position of the company's resources in the context of the surrounding environment to develop a clear understanding of the current competitive status of the organisation. The best practice of suggestions from the literature will be gathered into a proposal for a systematic research and analysis methodology governed by an information policy. A formal information project is suggested to collect and store the required information and to use a formalized set of visualization tools to provide an evolving holistic picture of the information leading to the architectural blueprint.

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (1) ◽  
Virna Ribeiro Feitosa Cestari ◽  
Raquel Sampaio Florêncio ◽  
Thiago Santos Garces ◽  
Vera Lucia Mendes de Paula Pessoa ◽  
Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the mobile apps on heart failure available in the main operating systems and their usability. Methods: benchmarking of mobile applications, systematic research, comprising 38 mobile applications for analysis of general information, functionalities and usability. Usability was assessed using System Usability Scale and Smartphone Usability Questionnaire, followed by the calculation of the agreement index and the exact binomial distribution test, with a significance level of p> 0.05 and a proportion of 0.90. Results: mobile applications had English as the predominant language (73.7%), were directed to patients (71.1%) and the predominant theme was disease knowledge (34.2%). Functionalities ranged from general features to the need for an internet connection. In assessing usability, heart failure was shown to be 92.1% -94.7% and p <0.05. Final considerations: the mobile apps on heart failure have varied content and adequate usability. However, there is a need to develop more comprehensive mobile applications.

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