time windows
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Sriharsha Voleti ◽  
Yasmin N Aziz ◽  
Johnathan Vidovich ◽  
Brendan Corcoran ◽  
Bin Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-50
Thomas Bock ◽  
Angelika Schmid ◽  
Sven Apel

Many open-source software projects depend on a few core developers, who take over both the bulk of coordination and programming tasks. They are supported by peripheral developers, who contribute either via discussions or programming tasks, often for a limited time. It is unclear what role these peripheral developers play in the programming and communication efforts, as well as the temporary task-related sub-groups in the projects. We mine code-repository data and mailing-list discussions to model the relationships and contributions of developers in a social network and devise a method to analyze the temporal collaboration structures in communication and programming, learning about the strength and stability of social sub-groups in open-source software projects. Our method uses multi-modal social networks on a series of time windows. Previous work has reduced the network structure representing developer collaboration to networks with only one type of interaction, which impedes the simultaneous analysis of more than one type of interaction. We use both communication and version-control data of open-source software projects and model different types of interaction over time. To demonstrate the practicability of our measurement and analysis method, we investigate 10 substantial and popular open-source software projects and show that, if sub-groups evolve, modeling these sub-groups helps predict the future evolution of interaction levels of programmers and groups of developers. Our method allows maintainers and other stakeholders of open-source software projects to assess instabilities and organizational changes in developer interaction and can be applied to different use cases in organizational analysis, such as understanding the dynamics of a specific incident or discussion.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Leila Hashemi ◽  
Armin Mahmoodi ◽  
Milad Jasemi ◽  
Richard C. Millar ◽  
Jeremy Laliberté

PurposeIn the present research, location and routing problems, as well as the supply chain, which includes manufacturers, distributor candidate sites and retailers, are explored. The goal of addressing the issue is to reduce delivery times and system costs for retailers so that routing and distributor location may be determined.Design/methodology/approachBy adding certain unique criteria and limits, the issue becomes more realistic. Customers expect simultaneous deliveries and pickups, and retail service start times have soft and hard time windows. Transportation expenses, noncompliance with the soft time window, distributor construction, vehicle purchase or leasing, and manufacturing costs are all part of the system costs. The problem's conceptual model is developed and modeled first, and then General Algebraic Modeling System software (GAMS) and Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) algorithms are used to solve it in small dimensions.FindingsAccording to the mathematical model's solution, the average error of the two suggested methods, in contrast to the exact answer, is less than 0.7%. In addition, the performance of algorithms in terms of deviation from the GAMS exact solution is pretty satisfactory, with a divergence of 0.4% for the biggest problem (N = 100). As a result, NSGAII is shown to be superior to MOSPSO.Research limitations/implicationsSince this paper deals with two bi-objective models, the priorities of decision-makers in selecting the best solution were not taken into account, and each of the objective functions was given an equal weight based on the weighting procedures. The model has not been compared or studied in both robust and deterministic modes. This is because, with the exception of the variable that indicates traffic mode uncertainty, all variables are deterministic, and the uncertainty character of demand in each level of the supply chain is ignored.Practical implicationsThe suggested model's conclusions are useful for any group of decision-makers concerned with optimizing production patterns at any level. The employment of a diverse fleet of delivery vehicles, as well as the use of stochastic optimization techniques to define the time windows, demonstrates how successful distribution networks are in lowering operational costs.Originality/valueAccording to a multi-objective model in a three-echelon supply chain, this research fills in the gaps in the link between routing and location choices in a realistic manner, taking into account the actual restrictions of a distribution network. The model may reduce the uncertainty in vehicle performance while choosing a refueling strategy or dealing with diverse traffic scenarios, bringing it closer to certainty. In addition, two modified MOPSO and NSGA-II algorithms are presented for solving the model, with the results compared to the exact GAMS approach for medium- and small-sized problems.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 298
José Antonio de Mera-Rodríguez ◽  
Guadalupe Álvarez-Hernán ◽  
Yolanda Gañán ◽  
Ana Santos-Almeida ◽  
Gervasio Martín-Partido ◽  

The histochemical detection of β-galactosidase enzymatic activity at pH 6.0 (β-gal-pH6) is a widely used biomarker of cellular senescence in aging tissues. This histochemical assay also detects the presence of programmed cell senescence during specific time windows in degenerating structures of vertebrate embryos. However, it has recently been shown that this enzymatic activity is also enhanced in subpopulations of differentiating neurons in the developing central nervous system in vertebrates. The present study addressed the histochemical detection of β-gal-pH6 enzymatic activity in the developing postnatal olfactory epithelium in the mouse. This activity was detected in the intermediate layer of the olfactory epithelium. As development progressed, the band of β-gal-pH6 labeling in this layer increased in width. Immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry showed the β-gal-pH6 staining to be strongly correlated with the immunolabeling of the olfactory marker protein (OMP) that identifies mature olfactory sensory neurons. The cell somata of a subpopulation of differentiated olfactory neurons that were recognized with the Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) were always located inside this band of β-gal-pH6 staining. However, the β-gal-pH6 histochemical signal was always absent from the apical region where the cytokeratin-8 positive supporting cells were located. Furthermore, no β-gal-pH6 staining was found in the basal region of the olfactory epithelium where PCNA/pHisH3 immunoreactive proliferating progenitor cells, GAP43 positive immature neurons, and cytokeratin-5 positive horizontal basal cells were located. Therefore, β-gal-pH6 seems to be linked to neuronal differentiation and cannot be regarded as a biomarker of cellular senescence during olfactory epithelium development in mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 446
Michał Gębka ◽  
Anna Bajer-Czajkowska ◽  
Sandra Pyza ◽  
Krzysztof Safranow ◽  
Wojciech Poncyljusz ◽  

Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion who were reperfused by MT in early and late time window. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software was used to calculate of hypodensity volumes at baseline NCCT (V1) and at follow-up NCCT 24 h after MT (V2), along with the difference between the two volumes (V2-V1) and the follow-up (V2)/baseline (V1) volume ratio (V2/V1). The same software was used to classify collateral status by using a 4-point scale where the score of zero indicated no collaterals and the score of three represented contrast filling of all collaterals. The volumetric values were correlated with the collateral scores. Results: Collateral scores had significant negative correlation with V1 (p = 0.035), V2, V2− V1 and V2/V1 (p < 0.001). In cases with collateral score = 3, V2 was significantly smaller or absent compared to V1; in those with collateral score 2, V2 was slightly larger than V1, and in those with scores 1 and 0 V2 was significantly larger than V1. These relationships were observed in both early and late time windows. Conclusions: The collateral status determined the evolution of the baseline hypodensity on NCCT in patients with anterior circulation stroke who had MT reperfusion. Damage can be stable or reversible in patients with good collaterals while in those with poor collaterals tissues that initially appear normal will frequently appear as necrotic after 24 h. With good collaterals, it is stable or can be reversible while with poor collaterals, normal looking tissue frequently appears as necrotic in follow-up exam. Hence, acute hypodensity represents different states of the ischemic brain parenchyma.

2022 ◽  
Christiana Bjorkli ◽  
Mary Hemler ◽  
Joshua Julian ◽  
Axel Sandvig ◽  
Ioanna Sandvig

All disease-targeting drug trials completed to date have fallen short of meeting the clinical endpoint of significantly slowing cognitive decline in Alzheimer′s disease patients. Even the recently approved drug Aducanumab, has proven effective in removing amyloid-β, but does not reduce cognitive decline. This emphasizes the urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches that could reduce several AD neuropathologies simultaneously, eventually leading to improved cognitive performance. To validate whether our mouse model replicates AD neuropathology as observed in patients, we characterized the 3xTg AD mouse model to avoid premature translation of successful results. In this study we have repurposed two FDA-approved drugs, Fasudil and Lonafarnib, targeting the Wnt signaling and endosomal-lysosomal pathway respectively, to test their potential to attenuate AD pathology. Using intracerebral microdialysis, we simultaneously infused these disease-targeting drugs between 1-2 weeks, separately and also in combination, while collecting cerebrospinal fluid. We found that Fasudil reduces intracellular amyloid-β in young, and amyloid plaques in old animals, and overall cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β. Lonafarnib reduces tau neuropathology and cerebrospinal fluid tau biomarkers in young and old animals. Co-infusion of both drugs was more effective in reducing intracellular amyloid-β than either drug alone, and appeared to improve contextual memory performance. However, an unexpected finding was that Lonafarnib treatment increased amyloid plaque size, suggesting that activating the endosomal-lysosomal system may inadvertently increase amyloid-β pathology if administered too late in the AD continuum. Taken together, these findings lend support to the application of repurposed drugs to attenuate AD neuropathology at various therapeutic time windows.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 876
Roxana Gandomani ◽  
Moataz Mohamed ◽  
Amir Amiri ◽  
Saiedeh Razavi

Shared mobility is a viable choice to improve the connectivity of lower-density neighbourhoods or suburbs that lack high-frequency public transportation services. In addition, its integration with new forms of powertrain and autonomous technologies can achieve more sustainable and efficient transportation. This study compares four shared-mobility technologies in suburban areas: the Internal Combustion Engine, Battery Electric, and two Autonomous Electric Vehicle scenarios, for various passenger capacities ranging from three to fifteen. The study aims to provide policymakers, transportation planners, and transit providers with insights into the potential costs and benefits as well as system configurations of shared mobility in a suburban context. A vehicle routing problem with time windows was applied using the J-Horizon software to optimize the costs of serving existing intra-community demand. The results indicate a similar fleet composition for Battery Electric and Autonomous Electric fleets. Furthermore, the resulting fleet for all four technologies is dominated by larger vehicle capacities. Due to the large share of driver cost in the total cost, the savings using a fleet of Autonomous Electric Vehicles are predicted to be 68% and 70%, respectively, compared to Internal Combustion and Battery Electric fleets.

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