Logistic Regression Models
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Youngcho Lee

AbstractWhile many countries with low birth rates have implemented policies incentivizing fathers to take parental leave with the anticipation that it will contribute to raising birth rates, there is scant research empirically testing whether fathers’ uptake of leave is pronatalist. Existing research is limited to a few European (mostly Nordic) countries, and it is unclear whether there exists a positive causal relationship. Using mixed methods, this paper seeks to explore the processes and mechanisms by which fathers’ uptake of parental leave impacts intentions for additional children in South Korea, a country characterized by lowest-low fertility and low but rapidly expanding uptake of leave by fathers. Results based on multinomial logistic regression models suggest that in comparison to fathers who expect to take their first leave shortly, fathers with leave experience are less likely to report couple-level intentions for another child, significantly so at parity two. Interviews of fathers with parental leave experience confirm that fathers attenuate their fertility intentions downwards in light of the difficulties of childcare during their leave. While these intentions may change further down the line and/or couples may decide to continue an unplanned pregnancy, results suggest that fathers’ parental leave has an anti- rather than pronatalist effect in South Korea. This study demonstrates that in countries with poor support for the reconciliation of employment and childcare, equalizing the gendered division of parental leave may not be sufficient to see a reversal in its fertility trends.

Van M. Ta Park ◽  
Marcelle M. Dougan ◽  
Oanh L. Meyer ◽  
Bora Nam ◽  
Marian Tzuang ◽  

Reports of escalated discrimination among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) due to COVID-19 are alarming, making this a public health priority. However, there are limited empirical studies on the scope and impact of COVID-19-related discrimination among AAPIs. Using the COVID-19 Effects on the Mental and Physical Health of AAPI Survey Study (COMPASS) data (N = 4971; survey period: October 2020–February 2021), which is a U.S.-wide multi-lingual survey, we examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with discrimination experiences attributable to being an AAPI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, 60.7% reported experiencing discrimination; the group prevalence ranged from 80.0% (Hmong) to 40.5% (Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders). Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that COVID-19-related factors were associated with many discrimination experiences: having a shelter-in-place order of ≥1 month, living in areas with perceived similar/higher COVID-19 severity, and negative impact in family income/employment due to COVID-19. Additionally, being Asian American (versus Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders), females, non-heterosexuals, younger, more severe effect on family income, living in the non-West, and poorer health were significantly correlated with discrimination experiences. Findings may assist in formulating anti-AAPI-discrimination policies and programs at the local, state, and federal levels. Culturally appropriate programs and policies to combat this are urgently needed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Ximena Moreno ◽  
Jean Gajardo ◽  
María José Monsalves

Abstract Background Different factors are associated with late life depression and diagnosis, including gender. It has also been reported that depression among older people is underdiagnosed. As a result, the mental health needs of this group are insufficiently met. The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in the factors associated with positive screens for depression and self-reported diagnosis among older adults in Chile. Methods Data from 3786 older adults who participated in the Social Protection Survey in 2016 were analysed. PHQ-9 was used to identify screen-positive cases. Self-reported diagnosis of depression was used to determine the proportion of people with a screen-positive result who had received a diagnosis of depression. Logistic regression models were used to determine sociodemographic and health factors associated with depression and underdiagnosis in older men and women. Results The prevalence of a screen-positive result was 20.91% (5.83% major depressive disorder) among men, and 36.38% (12.43% major depressive disorder) among women. 18.77% of men and 34.11% of women with a positive depression screening had received a diagnosis. More educated men were more likely to receive a diagnosis. Older age was associated with a lower probability of diagnosis among older women. Conclusions Our results suggest that depressive disorders are undiagnosed in a high proportion of older adults in Chile. Gender is a relevant factor in the underdiagnosis of depression in this group. Further research is needed to understand the factors involved in these gaps, to improve detection and provide timely support and treatment.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089011712110619
Dale S. Mantey ◽  
Stephanie L. Clendennen ◽  
Andrew E. Springer ◽  
Melissa B. Harrell

Purpose This study examines the role of perceived parental knowledge on initiation of nicotine and cannabis vaping among youth. Design Longitudinal study from a self-administered online survey. Three waves of data collected in 6-month intervals. Setting 79 public and private schools in Texas. Participants Adolescents who self-reported never using e-cigarette to vape nicotine (n=1907; weighted sample [N] = 304371) or vape cannabis (n=2212; N=351955) at baseline. Participants were in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade at baseline. Measures Self-reported measures of nicotine and cannabis vaping. Analyses Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined role of perceived parental knowledge at baseline (Spring 2016) as a predictor of nicotine and cannabis vaping initiation at 6-month (Fall 2016) and 12 month (Spring 2017) follow-up. Covariates were age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other tobacco use. Results Initiation rates were 5.9% for nicotine vaping and 8.6% for cannabis vaping, at 12-month follow-up overall. Higher perceived parental knowledge was associated with lower odds of nicotine vaping initiation at 6 months (adj OR: .69; 95% CI: .50-.93) and 12 months (adj OR: .68; 95% CI: .50-.92). Similarly, higher perceived parental knowledge was associated with lower odds of cannabis vaping initiation at 6 months (adj OR: .58; 95% CI: .38-.87) and 12 months (adj OR: .53; 95% CI: .38-.74). Conclusion E-cigarette prevention efforts directed at adolescents should incorporate parent engagement strategies as a method of increasing actual and perceived parental knowledge of their child’s location, activities and peer groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Qi Xiao ◽  
Rongyao Hou ◽  
Hong Li ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Fuzhi Zhang ◽  

Large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke is closely associated with atherosclerosis, characterized by the accumulation of immune cells. Early recognition of LAA stroke is crucial. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling represents a promising, noninvasive approach for the detection of LAA stroke. Exosomal circRNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed circRNAs between LAA stroke and normal controls. From a further validation stage, the results were validated using RT-qPCR. We then built logistic regression models of exosomal circRNAs based on a large replication stage, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the diagnostic efficacy. Using exosomal circRNA sequencing, large sample validation, and diagnostic model construction revealed that exosomal circ_0043837 and circ_ 0001801were independent predictive factors for LAA stroke, and had better diagnostic efficacy than plasma circRNAs. In the atherosclerotic group (AS), we developed a nomogram for clinical use that integrated the two-circRNA-based risk factors to predict which patients might have the risk of plaque rupture. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling identifies novel predictive biomarkers for the LAA stroke and plaque rupture, with superior diagnostic value than plasma circRNAs. It might facilitate the prevention and better management of this disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianping Bi ◽  
Jing Qian ◽  
Dongqin Yang ◽  
Lu Sun ◽  
Shouyu Lin ◽  

PurposeDosimetric parameters (e.g., mean lung dose (MLD), V20, and V5) can predict radiation pneumonitis (RP). Constraints thereof were formulated before the era of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and radiotherapy, which could amplify the RP risk. Dosimetric predictors of acute RP (aRP) in the context of ICIs are urgently needed because no data exist thus far.Methods and MaterialsAll included patients underwent thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy, previously received ICIs, and followed-up at least once. Logistic regression models examined predictors of aRP (including a priori evaluation of MLD, V20, and V5), and their discriminative capacity was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis.ResultsMedian follow-up of the 40 patients was 5.3 months. Cancers were lung (80%) or esophageal (20%). ICIs were PD-1 (85%) or PD-L1 (15%) inhibitors (median 4 cycles). Patients underwent definitive (n=19), consolidative (n=14), or palliative (n=7) radiotherapy; the median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) was 60 Gy (IQR, 51.8-64 Gy). Grades 1-5 aRP occurred in 25%, 17.5%, 15%, 2.5%, and 5%, respectively. The only variables associated with any-grade aRP were V20 (p=0.014) and MLD (p=0.026), and only V20 with grade ≥2 aRP (p=0.035). Neither the number of prior ICI cycles nor the delivery of concurrent systemic therapy significantly associated with aRP risk. Graphs were constructed showing the incrementally increasing risk of aRP based on V20 and MLD (continuous variables).ConclusionsThis is the first study illustrating that V20 and MLD may impact aRP in the setting of prior ICIs. However, these data should not be extrapolated to patients without pre-radiotherapy receipt of prior ICIs, or to evaluate the risk of chronic pulmonary effects. If these results are validated by larger studies with more homogeneous populations, the commonly accepted V20/MLD dose constraints could require revision if utilized in the setting of ICIs.

John S Ji ◽  
Linxin Liu ◽  
Yi Zeng ◽  
Lijing L Yan

Abstract Forkhead Box O 3 (FOXO3) genotype is strongly associated with human longevity and may be protective against neurodegeneration. Air pollution is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. We aimed to study the individual and combined effects of FOXO3 and air pollution on cognitive function in a large prospective cohort with up to 14 years of follow-up. We measured cognitive function and impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used tagging SNPs rs2253310, rs2802292, and rs4946936 to identify the FOXO3 gene, of which roughly half of the population had the longevity associated polymorphism. We matched annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations within 1 km^2 grid. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses using multivariable linear and logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation. At baseline, carriers of the longevity associated homozygous minor alleles of FOXO3 SNPs had a higher MMSE score than the carriers of homozygous major alleles. In the longitudinal follow-up, carriers of FOXO3 homozygous minor alleles had lower odds of cognitive impairment compared to non-carriers. Higher PM2.5 was associated with a lower MMSE score and higher odds of cognitive impairment. The positive effects of FOXO3 were the strongest in females, older people, and residents in areas with lower air pollution.

2022 ◽  
Anick Bérard ◽  
Jessica Gorgui ◽  
Vanina Tchuente ◽  
Anaïs Lacasse ◽  
Yessica-Haydee Gomez ◽  

Abstract Introduction: We aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health, stratifying on pregnancy status, trimester of gestation, and pandemic period/wave.Methods: Pregnant persons and persons who delivered in Canada during the pandemic, >18 years, were recruited, and data were collected using a web-based strategy. The current analysis includes data on persons enrolled between 06/2020-08/2021. Maternal sociodemographic indicators, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7), stress) were self-reported. Maternal mental health in pregnant women (stratified by trimester, and pandemic period/wave at recruitment) was compared with mental health of women who had delivered; determinants of severe depression were identified with multivariate logistic regression models.Results: 2,574 persons were pregnant and 626 had already delivered at recruitment. Participants who had delivered had significantly higher mean depressive symptom scores compared to those pregnant at recruitment (9.1 (SD, 5.7) vs. 8.4 (SD, 5.3), p=0.009). Among those who were pregnant at recruitment, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in women recruited in their third trimester, and those recruited during the 2nd wave of the pandemic. Maternal anxiety (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.44-1.59) and stress (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 1.24-1.48) were the most significant predictors of severe maternal depression (EDPS˃13) in pregnancy. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on maternal depression during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Given that gestational depression/anxiety/stress have been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, it is essential to continue following women/children, and develop strategies to reduce COVID-19’s longer-term impact.

Michela Bersia ◽  
Paola Berchialla ◽  
Lorena Charrier ◽  
Patrizia Lemma ◽  
Alberto Borraccino ◽  

(1) Aims: To explore temporal trends 2010–2018 of well-being among Italian adolescents and to evaluate potential explanatory factors. (2) Methods: Italian nationality representative samples of students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were recruited in 2010, 2014, and 2018; Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), for an overall number of 165,000 teenagers. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to fit the trends over time of life satisfaction (LS), psychological (PSY-HC) and somatic health complaints (SOM-HC) considering the contextual factors: school work pressure, social support (family, school, peers), socioeconomic status, geographic area, and immigration background; (3) Results: From 2010 to 2018 while LS was steady, health complaints increased, mainly for PSY-HC, in all age and gender groups. Trend of PSY-HC affected mainly 15-yrs-olds: rates among boys varied from 29.6% to 35.9% (OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.02–1.25); among girls from 49.1% to 63.3% (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42–1.72). High school work pressure and poor social support play a central role in worsening well-being outcomes; (4) Conclusions: Our findings pictured a remarkable worsening trend of teenagers’ well-being, especially among 15-year-old girls. Further research will be required to investigate this breaking up of the connection between psychophysical symptomatology and cognitive perception of life satisfaction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 26-30
Oscar H. Del Brutto ◽  
Robertino M. Mera

Abstract Background: This study assesses whether pineal gland calcification (PGC) – a surrogate for reduced endogenous melatonin production – is associated with significant stenosis of large intracranial arteries – a biomarker of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Three Villages Study received head CT to assess PGC and MRA to estimate stenosis of large intracranial arteries. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between PGC and ICAD, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Inverse probability of exposure weighting was used to estimate the effect of PGC on ICAD. Results: A total of 581 individuals were enrolled. PGC and ICAD were associated in a fully-adjusted logistic regression model (p=0.032). Inverse probability of exposure weighting showed an estimate for the proportion of ICAD among those without PGC of 3.7% and the adjusted-effect coefficient was 5.7% higher among those with PGC (p=0.031). Conclusions: PGC is associated with ICAD. Study results provide grounds for evaluating the role of melatonin deficiency in ICAD progression. Keywords: Pineal gland calcification, intracranial atherosclerosis, stenosis of large intracranial arteries, melatonin; population study, older adults

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