Logistic Regression Models
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 210-216
Author(s):  
Khaled Shaaban

Background: Pedestrian non-compliance at signalized crossings is unsafe and considered one of the causes of pedestrian crashes. The speed limit on most major urban roads is 60 km/hr or less. However, the speed on some urban roads is higher in some countries. In this case, the situation is more unsafe and increases the possibility of fatal injuries or fatalities in the case of a crash. Therefore, it is expected that the pedestrians will be more cautious on these roads. Aim: This study aims to explore pedestrian compliance at signalized intersections on major arterials with 80 km/hr speeds in Qatar. Methods: Video data were collected for pedestrian movements at multiple intersections. Results: The study reported a 68.1 percent compliance rate at the study locations. The results also revealed that 14.6 percent of the pedestrians crossed during the Flashing Don’t Walk interval and 17.3 percent crossed during the Steady Don’t Walk interval. These rates are considered high compared to other countries. Several variables that may influence pedestrians’ behavior were investigated. Binary and ordinal logistic regression models were developed to describe the pedestrian crossing behavior as a function of these variables. Conclusion: Male and middle-age pedestrians were more likely to cross during these two intervals. The analysis showed that female pedestrians, elder pedestrians, pedestrians crossing in groups, pedestrians waiting before crossing, and pedestrians crossing against a flow of other pedestrians are more likely to comply and cross during the Walk interval compared to other groups. Several solutions were proposed in the study to increase compliance rates.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiuguang He ◽  
You Zhou ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Zhongqiu Chen ◽  
Rong Wen ◽  
...  

Background and Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of thromboelastography with platelet mapping (TEG-PM) for predicting hematoma expansion (HE) and poor functional outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).Methods: Patients with primary ICH who underwent baseline computed tomography (CT) and TEG-PM within 6 h after symptom onset were enrolled in the observational cohort study. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the association of admission platelet function with HE and functional outcome. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis investigated the accuracy of platelet function in predicting HE. A mediation analysis was undertaken to determine causal associations among platelet function, HE, and outcome.Results: Of 142 patients, 37 (26.1%) suffered HE. Multivariate logistic regression identified arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) inhibition as significant independent predictors of HE. The area under the ROC curves was 0.727 for AA inhibition and 0.721 for ADP inhibition. Optimal threshold for AA inhibition was 41.75% (75.7% sensitivity; 67.6% specificity) and ADP inhibition was 65.8% (73.0% sensitivity; 66.7% specificity). AA and ADP inhibition were also associated with worse 3-month outcomes after adjusting for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline hematoma volume, and hemoglobin. The mediation analysis showed that the effect of higher platelet inhibition with poor outcomes was mediated through HE.Conclusions: These findings suggest that the reduced platelet response to ADP and AA independently predict HE and poor outcome in patients with ICH. Platelet function may represent a modifiable target of ICH treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. 146-151
Author(s):  
Samad Safiloo ◽  
Yadollah Mehrabi ◽  
Sareh Asadi ◽  
Soheila Khodakarim

Background: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with unpleasant thoughts or mental images, making the patient repeat physical or mental behaviors to relieve discomfort. 40-60% of patients do not respond to Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, including fluvoxamine therapy. Introduction: The aim of the study is to identify the predictors of fluvoxamine therapy in OCD patients by Bayesian Ordinal Quantile Regression Model. Methods: This study was performed on 109 patients with OCD. Three methods, including Bayesian ordinal quantile, probit, and logistic regression models, were applied to identify predictors of response to fluvoxamine. The accuracy and weighted kappa were used to evaluate these models. Results: Our result showed that rs3780413 (mean=-0.69, sd=0.39) and cleaning dimension (mean=-0.61, sd=0.20) had reverse effects on response to fluvoxamine therapy in Bayesian ordinal probit and logistic regression models. In the 75th quantile regression model, marital status (mean=1.62, sd=0.47) and family history (mean=1.33, sd=0.61) had a direct effect, and cleaning (mean=-1.10, sd=0.37) and somatic (mean=-0.58, sd=0.27) dimensions had reverse effects on response to fluvoxamine therapy. Conclusion: Response to fluvoxamine is a multifactorial problem and can be different in the levels of socio-demographic, genetic, and clinical predictors. Marital status, familial history, cleaning, and somatic dimensions are associated with response to fluvoxamine therapy.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258033
Author(s):  
Prince Kubi Appiah ◽  
Bright Osei ◽  
Hubert Amu

Background Nutritional deficiencies are generally associated with increased risk and severity of tuberculosis. This study investigated the nutritional status, knowledge, and attitudes of tuberculosis (TB) patients receiving treatment in the Tema Metropolis. Method A cross-sectional design was used to collect data on the nutritional knowledge, attitude, and status of TB patients. Nutritional status was analysed using World Health Organization’s formula for body mass index. Pearson’s chi-square and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between predictor and outcome variables. All statistical analyses were considered significant at p-values < 0.05. Result The prevalence of malnutrition among TB patients was 39.7%, 14.4%, and 4.8% for underweight, overweight, and obesity respectively. There was a high (61.0%) knowledge of nutrition among the patients. Also, 65.8% had good attitude towards nutrition. There were significant associations between normal nutritional status and age of the TB patients (p = 0.041), highest educational level attained (p = 0.036), employment status (p = 0.019), status of alcohol intake (p = 0.031), number of months on TB treatment (p = 0.021), and attitude towards nutrition (p = 0.028). Conclusion There was a reasonable nutrition-related knowledge and attitude towards nutrition among the TB patients. However, that did not reflect on their nutritional status. We recommend continuing education on smoking cessation, avoidance of harmful use of alcohol, and the establishment of food aid and other livelihood intervention programs for TB patients.


BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Line Hjøllund Pedersen ◽  
Friederike Erdmann ◽  
Gitte Lerche Aalborg ◽  
Lisa Lyngsie Hjalgrim ◽  
Hanne Bækgaard Larsen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background While underlying mechanisms and pathways of social inequalities in cancer survival have been extensively examined in adults, this is less so for children with cancer. Hypothesized mechanisms include prediagnostic utilization of and navigation through the health care system, which may differ by socioeconomic resources of the families. In this nationwide register-based study we investigated the association between measures of family socioeconomic position in relation to prediagnostic health care contacts and stage of disease at diagnosis in children with cancer in Denmark. Methods We identified all children diagnosed with a cancer at ages 0–15 years in 1998–2016 (N = 3043) from the Danish Childhood Cancer Registry. We obtained comprehensive information on measures of socioeconomic position, parental health and prediagnostic contacts to both general practitioners and hospitals 24 months prior to diagnosis from various national registries. We fitted multivariable conditional logistic regression models for the association of family socioeconomic and health-related variables with firstly, frequent health care contacts and secondly, advanced stage. Results We found higher odds ratios (OR) of frequent both overall and emergency health care contacts in the last 3 months before diagnosis in children from households with short parental education and mixed affiliation to work market, when compared to children with high family socioeconomic position. Further, children of parents with depression or of non-Western origin, respectively, had higher OR for frequent overall and emergency contacts. We found no association between socioeconomic position, parental health and stage of disease. Conclusion Families with socioeconomic disadvantage, non-Western origin or depression more frequently utilize prediagnostic health care services, both generally and in the acute setting, indicating that some disadvantaged families may struggle to navigate the health care system when their child is sick. Reassuringly, this was not reflected in disparities in stage at diagnosis. In order to improve the diagnostic process and potentially reduce health care contacts, attention and support should be given to families with a high number of health care contacts over a short period of time.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258475
Author(s):  
Konstantinos Kapetanos ◽  
Stella Mazeri ◽  
Despo Constantinou ◽  
Anna Vavlitou ◽  
Marios Karaiskakis ◽  
...  

Introduction The spread of COVID-19 into a global pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of frontline healthcare-workers. This study is a multi-centre, cross-sectional epidemiological study that uses nationwide data to assess the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression and burnout among health care workers managing COVID-19 patients in Cyprus. The study also investigates the mechanism behind the manifestation of these pathologies, as to allow for the design of more effective protective measures. Methods Data on the mental health status of the healthcare workers were collected from healthcare professionals from all over the nation, who worked directly with Covid patients. This was done via the use of 64-item, self-administered questionnaire, which was comprised of the DASS21 questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and a number of original questions. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate factors associated with each of the mental health measures. Results The sample population was comprised of 381 healthcare professionals, out of which 72.7% were nursing staff, 12.9% were medical doctors and 14.4% belonged to other occupations. The prevalence of anxiety, stress and depression among the sample population were 28.6%, 18.11% and 15% respectively. The prevalence of burnout was 12.3%. This was in parallel with several changes in the lives of the healthcare professionals, including; working longer hours, spending time in isolation and being separated from family. Discussion This study indicates that the mental health of a significant portion of the nation’s workforce is compromised and, therefore, highlights the need for an urgent intervention particularly since many countries, including Cyprus, are suffering a second wave of the pandemic. The identified risk factors should offer guidance for employers aiming to protect their frontline healthcare workers from the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Author(s):  
Antoine Gbessemehlan ◽  
Gilles Kehoua ◽  
Catherine Helmer ◽  
Cécile Delcourt ◽  
Achille Tchalla ◽  
...  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Very little is known about the impact of vision impairment (VI) on physical health in late-life in sub-Saharan Africa populations, whereas many older people experience it. We investigated the association between self-reported VI and frailty in Central African older people with low cognitive performance. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> It was cross-sectional analysis of data from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa (EPIDEMCA) population-based study. After screening for cognitive impairment, older people with low cognitive performance were selected. Frailty was assessed using the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture index. Participants who met one of the 3 parameters assessed (unintentional weight loss, inability to do 5 chair stands, and low energy level) were considered as pre-frail, and those who met 2 or more parameters were considered as frail. VI was self-reported. Associations were investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Out of 2,002 older people enrolled in EPIDEMCA, 775 (38.7%) had low cognitive performance on the screening test. Of them, 514 participants (sex ratio: 0.25) had available data on VI and frailty and were included in the analyses. In total, 360 (70%) self-reported VI. Prevalence of frailty was estimated at 64.9% [95% confidence interval: 60.9%–69.1%] and 23.7% [95% CI: 20.1%–27.4%] for pre-frailty. After full adjustment, self-reported VI was associated with frailty (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.3) but not with pre-frailty (adjusted odds ratio = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9–3.7). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> In Central African older people with low cognitive performance, those who self-reported VI were more likely to experience frailty. Our findings suggest that greater attention should be devoted to VI among this vulnerable population in order to identify early frailty onset and provide adequate care management.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meijuan Liu ◽  
Bingyan Cao ◽  
Qipeng Luo ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Min Liu ◽  
...  

ObjectiveTo investigate the associations of sleep duration, wake-up time, bedtime, and childhood abdominal obesity, and to test whether there is a weekday/weekend difference and the potential modifying role of sex.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on the Students’ Constitution and Health Survey and included 9559 students (4840 boys and 4719 girls) aged 7–18 years (7227 aged 7–12 years, 2332 aged 13–18 years). They were divided into two groups (control group and group with abdominal obesity). The physical measurements included children and youth body height, body weight, and waist circumference (WC). A parent-report questionnaire was used to collect the information about parent characteristics as well as lifestyle and sleep patterns (sleep duration, bedtime, and wake-up time of weekdays and weekends) of children and youth.ResultsThe prevalence of abdominal obesity was 30.57% and the percentages of sleep duration &lt;9 hours/day, wake-up time before 07:00 am on weekdays and weekends, bedtime after 10:00 pm on weekends were significantly higher in the group with abdominal obesity. After adjusting for confounders, sleep duration &lt;9 hours/day on weekends was inversely related to abdominal obesity in the overall subjects, regardless of their sex and age, while bedtime after 10:00 pm on weekends was inversely related to abdominal obesity only in the overall subjects, boys, and children aged 7–12 years. Logistic regression models in all subjects showed that shorter hours of weekends sleep duration were associated with greater risks of abdominal obesity, even after adjusting for all confounders, including wake-up time and bedtime. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of abdominal obesity (with ≥10 hours/day as the reference group) for children with 9–10 hours/day, 8–9 hours/day, and &lt;8 hours/day of weekend sleep duration were 1.23 (1.04–1.46), 1.59 (1.32–1.91) and 1.83 (1.42–2.36), respectively. Specifically, after stratification by sex and age, this phenomenon was only observed in boys and children aged 7–12 years.ConclusionsSleep duration and bedtime on weekends were independently associated with the risk of childhood abdominal obesity, particularly in boys and children aged 7–12 years.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Gosselin ◽  
Cecile Longchamps ◽  
Rachid Oulahal ◽  
Ilse Derluyn ◽  
Simon Ducarroz ◽  
...  

Background The often-precarious life circumstances of undocumented migrants are likely to heighten the detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their lives. Given the paucity of research exploring how undocumented migrants are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, we set out to explore the association between being an undocumented migrant and a range of social and mental health measures. Methods Our study draws on three complementary surveys conducted among migrants in France between April 1st and June 7th 2020 (APART TOGETHER, MAKASI, ECHO; n = 716). We tested associations between eight outcome measures, covering health literacy, prevention behaviours, perceptions of government responses, livelihoods and mental health (PHQ-9 score), and the participants' legal status as either undocumented or documented. We modelled the probability of food insecurity increase, job loss, depression, and responses to SARS-COV-2 symptoms with logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender and legal status. Results Undocumented migrants had a higher probability of experiencing food insecurity increase (aORs=10.40 [3.59, 30.16], and 2.19 [1.39, 3.50] in APART TOGETHER and ECHO), a higher probability of depression (aOR=2.65 [1.01, 6.97] in MAKASI). In all three surveys, undocumented migrants were more likely to lose their job (aORs=6.51 [1.18, 36.00], 8.36 [1.08, 64.70] and 3.96 [1.79, 9.16] in APART TOGETHER, MAKASI and ECHO respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that the lives of undocumented migrants have been dramatically worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic, exposing and amplifying the inequalities facing this group. There is an urgent need for action to address these inequalities.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0257891
Author(s):  
Lovisa Sjögren ◽  
Erik Stenberg ◽  
Meena Thuccani ◽  
Jari Martikainen ◽  
Christian Rylander ◽  
...  

Background Previous studies have shown that a high body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for severe COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a high BMI affects the risk of death or prolonged length of stay (LOS) in patients with COVID-19 during intensive care in Sweden. Methods and findings In this observational, register-based study, we included patients with COVID-19 from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in Sweden. Outcomes assessed were death during intensive care and ICU LOS ≥14 days. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the association (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) between BMI and the outcomes. Valid weight and height information could be retrieved in 1,649 patients (1,227 (74.4%) males) with COVID-19. We found a significant association between BMI and the risk of the composite outcome death or LOS ≥14 days in survivors (OR per standard deviation [SD] increase 1.30, 95%CI 1.16–1.44, adjusted for sex, age and comorbidities), and this association remained after further adjustment for severity of illness (simplified acute physiology score; SAPS3) at ICU admission (OR 1.30 per SD, 95%CI 1.17–1.45). Individuals with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 had a doubled risk of the composite outcome. A high BMI was also associated with death during intensive care and a prolonged LOS in survivors assessed as separate outcomes. The main limitations were the restriction to the first wave of the pandemic, and the lack of information on socioeconomic status as well as smoking. Conclusions In this large cohort of Swedish ICU patients with COVID-19, a high BMI was associated with increasing risk of death and prolonged length of stay in the ICU. Based on our findings, we suggest that individuals with obesity should be more closely monitored when hospitalized for COVID-19.


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