logistic regression models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xianglin Hu ◽  
Hui Ye ◽  
Wangjun Yan ◽  
Yangbai Sun

ObjectivesMost non-metastatic cancer patients can harvest a preferable survival after surgical treatment, however, patients sometimes refuse the recommended cancer-directed surgery. It is necessary to uncover the factors associated with patent's decision in taking cancer surgery and explore racial/ethnic disparities in surgery refusal.MethodsBased on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-18 program, we extracted data of non-metastatic cancer patients who didn't undergo surgery. Ten common solid cancers were selected. Four racial/ethnic categories were included: White, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander (API). Primary outcome was patient's refusal of surgery. Multivariable logistic regression models were used, with reported odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).ResultsAmong 318,318 patients, the incidence of surgery refusal was 3.5%. Advanced age, female patients, earlier cancer stage, uninsured/Medicaid and unmarried patients were significantly associated with higher odds of surgery refusal. Black and API patients were more likely to refuse recommended surgery than white patients in overall cancer (black-white: adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11–1.26; API-white: adjusted OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.41–1.72); those racial/ethnic disparities narrowed down after additionally adjusting for insurance type and marital status. In subgroup analysis, API-white disparities in surgery refusal widely existed in prostate, lung/bronchus, liver, and stomach cancers.ConclusionsPatient's socioeconomic conditions reflected by insurance type and marital status may play a key role in racial/ethnic disparities in surgery refusal. Oncological surgeons should fully consider the barriers behind patient's refusal of recommended surgery, thus promoting patient-doctor shared decision-making and guiding patients to the most appropriate therapy.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 247
Author(s):  
Laura Medwid ◽  
Elizabeth A. Mack

Research analyzing perceptions of water services has focused on water quality, water safety, and the propensity to consume water from different sources. It has not assessed perceptions of water costs. To address this knowledge gap, this study collected nationally representative survey data from households in the United States about water issues and incorporated these data into logistic regression models. In doing so, our study advances the water and public policy literature in three ways. One, it addresses the need for household resolution information about water issues given the absence of data at this scale in the United States. Two, it creates and utilizes one-of-a-kind survey data to understand the perceptions of household water bills and the drivers of these perceptions. Three, we assess the impact of proposed solutions to improve water affordability on household perceptions of water costs. Model results indicate low-income and households in underrepresented groups were more likely to perceive their water bills to be too high. The perception of water costs also varied geographically. From a policy perspective, model results indicate utilities can positively affect perceptions of water bills via the frequency of water billing and provision of payment assistance programs.


Author(s):  
Youngcho Lee

AbstractWhile many countries with low birth rates have implemented policies incentivizing fathers to take parental leave with the anticipation that it will contribute to raising birth rates, there is scant research empirically testing whether fathers’ uptake of leave is pronatalist. Existing research is limited to a few European (mostly Nordic) countries, and it is unclear whether there exists a positive causal relationship. Using mixed methods, this paper seeks to explore the processes and mechanisms by which fathers’ uptake of parental leave impacts intentions for additional children in South Korea, a country characterized by lowest-low fertility and low but rapidly expanding uptake of leave by fathers. Results based on multinomial logistic regression models suggest that in comparison to fathers who expect to take their first leave shortly, fathers with leave experience are less likely to report couple-level intentions for another child, significantly so at parity two. Interviews of fathers with parental leave experience confirm that fathers attenuate their fertility intentions downwards in light of the difficulties of childcare during their leave. While these intentions may change further down the line and/or couples may decide to continue an unplanned pregnancy, results suggest that fathers’ parental leave has an anti- rather than pronatalist effect in South Korea. This study demonstrates that in countries with poor support for the reconciliation of employment and childcare, equalizing the gendered division of parental leave may not be sufficient to see a reversal in its fertility trends.


2022 ◽  
pp. 089011712110619
Author(s):  
Dale S. Mantey ◽  
Stephanie L. Clendennen ◽  
Andrew E. Springer ◽  
Melissa B. Harrell

Purpose This study examines the role of perceived parental knowledge on initiation of nicotine and cannabis vaping among youth. Design Longitudinal study from a self-administered online survey. Three waves of data collected in 6-month intervals. Setting 79 public and private schools in Texas. Participants Adolescents who self-reported never using e-cigarette to vape nicotine (n=1907; weighted sample [N] = 304371) or vape cannabis (n=2212; N=351955) at baseline. Participants were in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade at baseline. Measures Self-reported measures of nicotine and cannabis vaping. Analyses Weighted multivariate logistic regression models examined role of perceived parental knowledge at baseline (Spring 2016) as a predictor of nicotine and cannabis vaping initiation at 6-month (Fall 2016) and 12 month (Spring 2017) follow-up. Covariates were age, sex, race/ethnicity, and other tobacco use. Results Initiation rates were 5.9% for nicotine vaping and 8.6% for cannabis vaping, at 12-month follow-up overall. Higher perceived parental knowledge was associated with lower odds of nicotine vaping initiation at 6 months (adj OR: .69; 95% CI: .50-.93) and 12 months (adj OR: .68; 95% CI: .50-.92). Similarly, higher perceived parental knowledge was associated with lower odds of cannabis vaping initiation at 6 months (adj OR: .58; 95% CI: .38-.87) and 12 months (adj OR: .53; 95% CI: .38-.74). Conclusion E-cigarette prevention efforts directed at adolescents should incorporate parent engagement strategies as a method of increasing actual and perceived parental knowledge of their child’s location, activities and peer groups.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Cooper ◽  
Elham Rahme ◽  
Sze Man Tse ◽  
Roland Grad ◽  
Marc Dorais ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Having a primary care provider and a continuous relationship may be important for asthma outcomes. In this study, we sought to determine the association between 1) having a usual provider of primary care (UPC) and asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalization in Québec children with asthma and 2) UPC continuity of care and asthma outcomes. Methods Population-based retrospective cohort study using Québec provincial health administrative data, including children 2-16 years old with asthma (N = 39, 341). Exposures and outcomes were measured from 2010-2011 and 2012-2013, respectively. Primary exposure was UPC stratified by the main primary care models in Quebec (team-based Family Medicine Groups, family physicians not in Family Medicine Groups, pediatricians, or no assigned UPC). For those with an assigned UPC the secondary exposure was continuity of care, measured by the UPC Index (high, medium, low). Four multivariate logistic regression models examined associations between exposures and outcomes (ED visits and hospitalizations). Results Overall, 17.4% of children had no assigned UPC. Compared to no assigned UPC, having a UPC was associated with decreased asthma-related ED visits (pediatrician Odds Ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.73, 0.88]; Family Medicine Groups OR: 0.84, 95% CI [0.75,0.93]; non-Family Medicine Groups OR: 0.92, 95% CI [0.83, 1.02]) and hospital admissions (pediatrician OR: 0.66, 95% CI [0.58, 0.75]; Family Medicine Groups OR: 0.82, 95% CI [0.72, 0.93]; non-Family Medicine Groups OR: 0.76, 95% CI [0.67, 0.87]). Children followed by a pediatrician were more likely to have high continuity of care. Continuity of care was not significantly associated with asthma-related ED visits. Compared to low continuity, medium and high continuity of care decreased asthma-related hospital admissions, but none of these associations were significant. Conclusion Having a UPC was associated with reduced asthma-related ED visits and hospital admissions. However, continuity of care was not significantly associated with outcomes. The current study provides ongoing evidence for the importance of primary care in children with asthma.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianping Bi ◽  
Jing Qian ◽  
Dongqin Yang ◽  
Lu Sun ◽  
Shouyu Lin ◽  
...  

PurposeDosimetric parameters (e.g., mean lung dose (MLD), V20, and V5) can predict radiation pneumonitis (RP). Constraints thereof were formulated before the era of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and radiotherapy, which could amplify the RP risk. Dosimetric predictors of acute RP (aRP) in the context of ICIs are urgently needed because no data exist thus far.Methods and MaterialsAll included patients underwent thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy, previously received ICIs, and followed-up at least once. Logistic regression models examined predictors of aRP (including a priori evaluation of MLD, V20, and V5), and their discriminative capacity was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis.ResultsMedian follow-up of the 40 patients was 5.3 months. Cancers were lung (80%) or esophageal (20%). ICIs were PD-1 (85%) or PD-L1 (15%) inhibitors (median 4 cycles). Patients underwent definitive (n=19), consolidative (n=14), or palliative (n=7) radiotherapy; the median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) was 60 Gy (IQR, 51.8-64 Gy). Grades 1-5 aRP occurred in 25%, 17.5%, 15%, 2.5%, and 5%, respectively. The only variables associated with any-grade aRP were V20 (p=0.014) and MLD (p=0.026), and only V20 with grade ≥2 aRP (p=0.035). Neither the number of prior ICI cycles nor the delivery of concurrent systemic therapy significantly associated with aRP risk. Graphs were constructed showing the incrementally increasing risk of aRP based on V20 and MLD (continuous variables).ConclusionsThis is the first study illustrating that V20 and MLD may impact aRP in the setting of prior ICIs. However, these data should not be extrapolated to patients without pre-radiotherapy receipt of prior ICIs, or to evaluate the risk of chronic pulmonary effects. If these results are validated by larger studies with more homogeneous populations, the commonly accepted V20/MLD dose constraints could require revision if utilized in the setting of ICIs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qi Xiao ◽  
Rongyao Hou ◽  
Hong Li ◽  
Shuai Zhang ◽  
Fuzhi Zhang ◽  
...  

Large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke is closely associated with atherosclerosis, characterized by the accumulation of immune cells. Early recognition of LAA stroke is crucial. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling represents a promising, noninvasive approach for the detection of LAA stroke. Exosomal circRNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed circRNAs between LAA stroke and normal controls. From a further validation stage, the results were validated using RT-qPCR. We then built logistic regression models of exosomal circRNAs based on a large replication stage, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the diagnostic efficacy. Using exosomal circRNA sequencing, large sample validation, and diagnostic model construction revealed that exosomal circ_0043837 and circ_ 0001801were independent predictive factors for LAA stroke, and had better diagnostic efficacy than plasma circRNAs. In the atherosclerotic group (AS), we developed a nomogram for clinical use that integrated the two-circRNA-based risk factors to predict which patients might have the risk of plaque rupture. Circulating exosomal circRNAs profiling identifies novel predictive biomarkers for the LAA stroke and plaque rupture, with superior diagnostic value than plasma circRNAs. It might facilitate the prevention and better management of this disease.


Author(s):  
Michela Bersia ◽  
Paola Berchialla ◽  
Lorena Charrier ◽  
Patrizia Lemma ◽  
Alberto Borraccino ◽  
...  

(1) Aims: To explore temporal trends 2010–2018 of well-being among Italian adolescents and to evaluate potential explanatory factors. (2) Methods: Italian nationality representative samples of students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were recruited in 2010, 2014, and 2018; Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), for an overall number of 165,000 teenagers. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed to fit the trends over time of life satisfaction (LS), psychological (PSY-HC) and somatic health complaints (SOM-HC) considering the contextual factors: school work pressure, social support (family, school, peers), socioeconomic status, geographic area, and immigration background; (3) Results: From 2010 to 2018 while LS was steady, health complaints increased, mainly for PSY-HC, in all age and gender groups. Trend of PSY-HC affected mainly 15-yrs-olds: rates among boys varied from 29.6% to 35.9% (OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.02–1.25); among girls from 49.1% to 63.3% (OR: 1.56, 95%CI: 1.42–1.72). High school work pressure and poor social support play a central role in worsening well-being outcomes; (4) Conclusions: Our findings pictured a remarkable worsening trend of teenagers’ well-being, especially among 15-year-old girls. Further research will be required to investigate this breaking up of the connection between psychophysical symptomatology and cognitive perception of life satisfaction.


2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 26-30
Author(s):  
Oscar H. Del Brutto ◽  
Robertino M. Mera

Abstract Background: This study assesses whether pineal gland calcification (PGC) – a surrogate for reduced endogenous melatonin production – is associated with significant stenosis of large intracranial arteries – a biomarker of intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). Methods: Individuals aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Three Villages Study received head CT to assess PGC and MRA to estimate stenosis of large intracranial arteries. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between PGC and ICAD, after adjusting for relevant confounders. Inverse probability of exposure weighting was used to estimate the effect of PGC on ICAD. Results: A total of 581 individuals were enrolled. PGC and ICAD were associated in a fully-adjusted logistic regression model (p=0.032). Inverse probability of exposure weighting showed an estimate for the proportion of ICAD among those without PGC of 3.7% and the adjusted-effect coefficient was 5.7% higher among those with PGC (p=0.031). Conclusions: PGC is associated with ICAD. Study results provide grounds for evaluating the role of melatonin deficiency in ICAD progression. Keywords: Pineal gland calcification, intracranial atherosclerosis, stenosis of large intracranial arteries, melatonin; population study, older adults


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anick Bérard ◽  
Jessica Gorgui ◽  
Vanina Tchuente ◽  
Anaïs Lacasse ◽  
Yessica-Haydee Gomez ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction: We aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal mental health, stratifying on pregnancy status, trimester of gestation, and pandemic period/wave.Methods: Pregnant persons and persons who delivered in Canada during the pandemic, >18 years, were recruited, and data were collected using a web-based strategy. The current analysis includes data on persons enrolled between 06/2020-08/2021. Maternal sociodemographic indicators, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7), stress) were self-reported. Maternal mental health in pregnant women (stratified by trimester, and pandemic period/wave at recruitment) was compared with mental health of women who had delivered; determinants of severe depression were identified with multivariate logistic regression models.Results: 2,574 persons were pregnant and 626 had already delivered at recruitment. Participants who had delivered had significantly higher mean depressive symptom scores compared to those pregnant at recruitment (9.1 (SD, 5.7) vs. 8.4 (SD, 5.3), p=0.009). Among those who were pregnant at recruitment, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in women recruited in their third trimester, and those recruited during the 2nd wave of the pandemic. Maternal anxiety (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.44-1.59) and stress (aOR 1.35; 95%CI 1.24-1.48) were the most significant predictors of severe maternal depression (EDPS˃13) in pregnancy. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on maternal depression during pregnancy and in the post-partum period. Given that gestational depression/anxiety/stress have been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, it is essential to continue following women/children, and develop strategies to reduce COVID-19’s longer-term impact.


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