crop residues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 027-035
Chisowa DM ◽  
Mpofu IDT ◽  
Daura MT ◽  
Syampaku EM

This study evaluated the use of maize, groundnut and soybean stover in cattle feeding. The study assessed the value of upgrading the quality of crop residues. The study involved evaluation of palatability of maize stover improved using urea (U), chopped groundnut stover (cGS), chopped soybean stover (cSS), mineralized groundnut stover solution (mGS) and mineralized soybean stover solution (mSS). In the feeding trial, twelve (12) crossbred dairy cows in their second parity were used as experimental units. A 22 factorial experiment within a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) was used. Maize stover was chopped before being mixed with urea, chopped legume stover and mineralized legume stover solutions. The effect of supplementation using maize stover upgraded with U, cGS, cSS, mGS and mSS was studied for supplement intake levels. Urea Ensilage Treatment (UET) was used as the novel therapy in the study. Both legume type and processing method had influence on supplement intake of maize stover. Groundnut stover had significantly (p˂0.05) higher (0.99kg/day, se=0.04) effect on supplement intake of maize stover than soybean stover(0.83kg/day, se=0.04). The use of mineralized legume stover solution proved significant (p˂0.05) to the use of chopped legume stover in improving the intake of maize stover. Results have indicated that intake was highest (1.01kg/day, s.e=0.04) for mineralised groundnut stover solution and lowest (0.67kg/day, s.e=0.04) for Urea Ensiling Treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Opinder Singh Sandhu ◽  
Mangi L. Jat ◽  
Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Harmeet Singh Thind ◽  
Harminder Singh Sidhu ◽  

Decomposition influences carbon and nutrient cycling from crop residues. The nylon-mesh-bag technique was implied to study the decomposition and N-release dynamics from different crop residues under field conditions. The four types of residues were: maize (lower than 50% below the cob), wheat (lower than 25% of wheat stubbles), a whole mung bean residue, and a mixture of wheat + mung bean residue (1:1 ratio) put on the soil surface and in below the sub-surface. Decomposition and N release from both at-surface- and below-surface-placed residues were accurately described by a single-pool first-order exponential decay function as a function of thermal time (based on the accumulative daily mean temperature). The simple first-order exponential model met the criteria of goodness of fit. Throughout the decomposition cycle (one thermal year), the rate of decomposition as measured by a decrease in residue mass and the release of total N were statistically higher from the sub-surface compared to the surface-placed residue, irrespective of the residue type. At the end of the 150-day decomposition cycle, the release of total N was highest in mung bean (32.0 kg N ha−1), followed by maize (31.5 kg N ha−1) > wheat + mung bean (16.1 kg N ha−1), and the minimum (6.54 kg N ha−1) in wheat residue. Crop residues with a wider C/N ratio such as maize and wheat, when applied on the soil surface in conservation agriculture, caused the decomposition to occur at slower rates, thereby providing long-term beneficial effects on the soil thermal regime, soil moisture conservation, and C sequestration in North-West India.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Isidoro Carricondo-Martínez ◽  
Francesca Berti ◽  
Maria del Carmen Salas-Sanjuán

The valorisation of vegetal waste as a source of crop nutrients constitutes a circular strategy to improve the sustainability of intensive horticultural production systems. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic amendments derived from vegetal residues on the yield and quality of tomato. The following fertilisation treatments were carried out: fresh vegetal residues (4 kg m−1), compost (3 kg m−1), and vermicompost at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), all derived from previous tomato crop vegetal residues, an organic treatment with goat manure (3 kg m−1), and a control mineral fertigation treatment. The highest yield was obtained with conventional mineral fertigation management, followed by vermicompost treatments at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), with no statistical differences. The organic treatments with fresh crop residues, compost and goat manure resulted in lower yield. Regarding quality parameters, the lycopene content was higher in the mineral fertilisation and vermicompost at 3 kg m−1 treatment, while the other antioxidants measured were more concentrated in tomatoes fertilised with vermicompost treatment at 9 kg m−1 and goat manure. The plant nutrient management with vermicompost is the best circular solution, as it allows to reintegrate the residues generated in previous crop cycles into the soil, obtaining a yield equal to chemical input management and tomatoes with high nutritional quality.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 169
Aleš Kolmanič ◽  
Lovro Sinkovič ◽  
Marijan Nečemer ◽  
Nives Ogrinc ◽  
Vladimir Meglič

The present study investigated the effects of cultivation practices on grain (oats) yield and yield components, such as straw yield, harvest index, thousand kernel weight, and plant lodging. In addition, multi-element composition and isotopic signature (δ13C, δ15N) of the oat grains were studied. The spring oat cultivar ‘Noni’ was grown in a long-term field experiment during 2015–2020, using three management practices: control without organic amendment, incorporation of manure every third year and incorporation of crop residues/cover crop in the rotation. Synthetic nitrogen (N) (0, 55, 110 and 165 kg/ha) was applied during oat development in each system. Multi-element analysis of mature grains from two consecutive years (2016 and 2017) was performed using EDXRF spectroscopy, while stable isotope ratios of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) were obtained using an elemental analyzer coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA/IRMS). The results show how cultivation practices affect yield components and isotopic and elemental signatures. Increasing the N rate improved both the oat grain and straw yields and increased susceptibility to lodging. The results show how the elemental content (Si, Ca, Zn, Fe, Ti, Br and Rb) in the oat grains were influenced by intensification, and a noticeable decrease in elemental content at higher N rates was the result of a dilution effect of increased dry matter production. The mean δ15N values in oat grains ranged from 2.5‰ to 6.4‰ and decreased with increasing N rate, while δ13C values ranged from −29.9‰ to –28.9‰. Based on the δ15N values, it was possible to detect the addition of synthetic N above an N rate of 55 kg/ha, although it was impossible to differentiate between different management practices using stable isotopes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101852912110652
Devpriya Sarkar

In 2015, Sikkim, a North-Eastern state of India, achieved the state of being fully organic. Later, states like Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Goa and Kerala have declared their intentions to be fully organic. In Nagaland, more than 47% of the population is engaged in agriculture and entirely dependent on the traditional mode of farming and has used organic manure like cattle dung, dried leaves-litter and crop residues for enhancing the capacity of soil from time immemorial. Also, studies have shown that the state of Nagaland has negligible use of inorganic supplements in their fields. Thus, Nagaland has a high potential to be converted into an organic state without making any significant shifts in their existing farming practices. Shifting cultivation, locally known as Jhum-kheti, is one of the oldest forms of the agricultural process in practice in Nagaland. However, some studies regard Jhum cultivation as harmful to the environment, but there is a scope to reinvent this farming method and move towards a more sustainable form of agriculture there. This study explores the relation between traditional farming and organic farming and the benefits of state-induced organic farming methods and their effects on the farmers of Nagaland. A survey was carried out in the Mokokchung district of Nagaland to understand the role of farmers in attaining sustainability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 539
Garima Singh ◽  
Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji ◽  
Hariprasad Puttuswamy ◽  
Satyawati Sharma

The current study aims towards a holistic utilization of agro-waste rice straw (RS) to synthesize nanosilica (SiNPs) employing the sol–gel method. The effect of ashing temperature was evaluated for the synthesis process. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a broad spectrum at 21.22° for SiNPs obtained using RSA-600, signifying its amorphous nature, whereas crystalline SiNPs were synthesized using RSA-900. The EDX and FTIR spectra confirmed the significant peaks of Si and O for amorphous SiNPs, confirming their purity over crystalline SiNPs. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs indicated the spheroid morphology of the SiNPs with an average size of 27.47 nm (amorphous SiNPs) and 52.79 nm (crystalline SiNPs). Amorphous SiNPs possessed a high surface area of 226.11 m2/g over crystalline SiNPs (84.45 m2/g). The results obtained attest that the amorphous SiNPs possessed better attributes than crystalline SiNPs, omitting the need to incorporate high temperature. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using SiNPs reflected that 66.26% of the dye was degraded in the first 10 min. The degradation study showed first-order kinetics with a half-life of 6.79 min. The cost-effective and environmentally friendly process offers a sustainable route to meet the increasing demand for SiNPs in industrial sectors. The study proposes a sustainable solution to stubble burning, intending towards zero waste generation, bioeconomy, and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), namely SDG 13(Climate Action), SDG 3(Good health and well-being), SDG 7(use of crop residues in industrial sectors) and SDG 8 (employment generation).

2022 ◽  
pp. 49-56
NDIZIHIWE Prosper ◽  
Burnet Mkandawire ◽  
Kayibanda Venant

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