Crop Residues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 027-035
Chisowa DM ◽  
Mpofu IDT ◽  
Daura MT ◽  
Syampaku EM

This study evaluated the use of maize, groundnut and soybean stover in cattle feeding. The study assessed the value of upgrading the quality of crop residues. The study involved evaluation of palatability of maize stover improved using urea (U), chopped groundnut stover (cGS), chopped soybean stover (cSS), mineralized groundnut stover solution (mGS) and mineralized soybean stover solution (mSS). In the feeding trial, twelve (12) crossbred dairy cows in their second parity were used as experimental units. A 22 factorial experiment within a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) was used. Maize stover was chopped before being mixed with urea, chopped legume stover and mineralized legume stover solutions. The effect of supplementation using maize stover upgraded with U, cGS, cSS, mGS and mSS was studied for supplement intake levels. Urea Ensilage Treatment (UET) was used as the novel therapy in the study. Both legume type and processing method had influence on supplement intake of maize stover. Groundnut stover had significantly (p˂0.05) higher (0.99kg/day, se=0.04) effect on supplement intake of maize stover than soybean stover(0.83kg/day, se=0.04). The use of mineralized legume stover solution proved significant (p˂0.05) to the use of chopped legume stover in improving the intake of maize stover. Results have indicated that intake was highest (1.01kg/day, s.e=0.04) for mineralised groundnut stover solution and lowest (0.67kg/day, s.e=0.04) for Urea Ensiling Treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Opinder Singh Sandhu ◽  
Mangi L. Jat ◽  
Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Harmeet Singh Thind ◽  
Harminder Singh Sidhu ◽  

Decomposition influences carbon and nutrient cycling from crop residues. The nylon-mesh-bag technique was implied to study the decomposition and N-release dynamics from different crop residues under field conditions. The four types of residues were: maize (lower than 50% below the cob), wheat (lower than 25% of wheat stubbles), a whole mung bean residue, and a mixture of wheat + mung bean residue (1:1 ratio) put on the soil surface and in below the sub-surface. Decomposition and N release from both at-surface- and below-surface-placed residues were accurately described by a single-pool first-order exponential decay function as a function of thermal time (based on the accumulative daily mean temperature). The simple first-order exponential model met the criteria of goodness of fit. Throughout the decomposition cycle (one thermal year), the rate of decomposition as measured by a decrease in residue mass and the release of total N were statistically higher from the sub-surface compared to the surface-placed residue, irrespective of the residue type. At the end of the 150-day decomposition cycle, the release of total N was highest in mung bean (32.0 kg N ha−1), followed by maize (31.5 kg N ha−1) > wheat + mung bean (16.1 kg N ha−1), and the minimum (6.54 kg N ha−1) in wheat residue. Crop residues with a wider C/N ratio such as maize and wheat, when applied on the soil surface in conservation agriculture, caused the decomposition to occur at slower rates, thereby providing long-term beneficial effects on the soil thermal regime, soil moisture conservation, and C sequestration in North-West India.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Isidoro Carricondo-Martínez ◽  
Francesca Berti ◽  
Maria del Carmen Salas-Sanjuán

The valorisation of vegetal waste as a source of crop nutrients constitutes a circular strategy to improve the sustainability of intensive horticultural production systems. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic amendments derived from vegetal residues on the yield and quality of tomato. The following fertilisation treatments were carried out: fresh vegetal residues (4 kg m−1), compost (3 kg m−1), and vermicompost at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), all derived from previous tomato crop vegetal residues, an organic treatment with goat manure (3 kg m−1), and a control mineral fertigation treatment. The highest yield was obtained with conventional mineral fertigation management, followed by vermicompost treatments at two different doses (3 and 9 kg m−1), with no statistical differences. The organic treatments with fresh crop residues, compost and goat manure resulted in lower yield. Regarding quality parameters, the lycopene content was higher in the mineral fertilisation and vermicompost at 3 kg m−1 treatment, while the other antioxidants measured were more concentrated in tomatoes fertilised with vermicompost treatment at 9 kg m−1 and goat manure. The plant nutrient management with vermicompost is the best circular solution, as it allows to reintegrate the residues generated in previous crop cycles into the soil, obtaining a yield equal to chemical input management and tomatoes with high nutritional quality.

2022 ◽  
pp. 101852912110652
Devpriya Sarkar

In 2015, Sikkim, a North-Eastern state of India, achieved the state of being fully organic. Later, states like Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Goa and Kerala have declared their intentions to be fully organic. In Nagaland, more than 47% of the population is engaged in agriculture and entirely dependent on the traditional mode of farming and has used organic manure like cattle dung, dried leaves-litter and crop residues for enhancing the capacity of soil from time immemorial. Also, studies have shown that the state of Nagaland has negligible use of inorganic supplements in their fields. Thus, Nagaland has a high potential to be converted into an organic state without making any significant shifts in their existing farming practices. Shifting cultivation, locally known as Jhum-kheti, is one of the oldest forms of the agricultural process in practice in Nagaland. However, some studies regard Jhum cultivation as harmful to the environment, but there is a scope to reinvent this farming method and move towards a more sustainable form of agriculture there. This study explores the relation between traditional farming and organic farming and the benefits of state-induced organic farming methods and their effects on the farmers of Nagaland. A survey was carried out in the Mokokchung district of Nagaland to understand the role of farmers in attaining sustainability.

Waseem Raja ◽  
M. Anwar Bhat ◽  
B.A. Allie ◽  
Intikhab A. Jehangir ◽  
Ashaq Hussain

Background: Quality and higher fodder production is one of the important aspects to get higher productivity from live stock. India suffer a net deficiency of 35.6% green fodder, 10.95% dry crop residues and Jammu and Kashmir faces a net deficit of 19% in fodder. The choice to grow cultivated fodder crops during kharif season in Kashmir is limited and are grown generally under rainfed conditions. The major kharif season fodder cereal crops are maize and sorghum and the legume fodder crops are cowpea and soybean. To improve the quality and yield of fodder crops, it is important to standardise production technology for legume fodder crops. Methods: A field experiment was undertaken at Agronomy Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Wadura of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir during kharif 2019 and 2020 to study the impact of different fertility management practices on productivity and economics of forage soybean. The experiment comprising of seven treatments laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Result: Application of N, P2O5, K2O (30, 90, 45 kg/ha) along with 0.1 tons/ha vermicompost recoded higher green fodder productivity and growth characters of soybean. However application of N, P2O5, K2O (20, 60, 30 kg/ha) was found economically viable option.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Gopal Sonkar

The article explores potential energy production quantity from surplus crop resides in the son river watershed. A special focus on the agricultural regions of the Son watershed through an analysis of the real potential of surplus crop residues resource. The emphasis on residues energy greatly significant in current practices and future expectation. The United Nations Development Programme, for example, refers to sustainable development as a fundamental question of our generation's development, which challenges the aspiration to enlighten humanity's collective journey towards a better future. National and international development agencies whose actions are commonly combined in the context of the development of clean renewable energy under the sustainable and clean development mechanism goals. These concerns are based on consensus among scientific and development approaches that global climate change triggers profound shifts in power/energy resources associated with ecological systems that will significant transformation in local and global environment. The most serious impacts of fossil fuel are generally seen to be concentrated among the world's poor and especially those living in the global south. The article also attempts to emphasize the importance of regional perspective and production of crop residue quantities. Crop -based residues resource has several distinct advantages such as wide periodically availability that puts it ahead among the renewable energy options.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (9) ◽  
pp. 1631-1636
T.A. Ishola ◽  
SB Hassan

Crop residues are bulky and low in nutrients. Their size reduction is imperative in order to compound them with other feed ingredients to achieve balanced feedstock for livestock. A chopping and pulverizing machine was designed and constructed to chop and pulverized feed materials. It comprises of chopping hopper, pulverizing hopper, metering device, chopping/ pulverizing chamber, screen and the processed feed outlet. The performance of the machine was evaluated on the basis of throughput capacity, pulverizing efficiency, scatter losses as dependent variables while moisture content was the independent variable. There were two level of speeds (1500 rpm and 2100 rpm) and five levels of moisture content (13 %, 16 %, 19 %, 21 %, 24 %, and 27 % dry basis). The throughput capacity, pulverizing efficiency had highest values of 222 kg/h and of 92.5 % respectively at moisture content level of 13 % (db) and 2100 rpm speed. However, the least scatter losses obtained was 2.5 % at moisture content level of 27 % (db) and 1500 rpm speed. As the moisture content increased, throughput capacity, pulverizing efficiency and scatter losses decreases at both speeds. The developed machine could enhance the use of crop residues in feeding livestock which could ultimately reduce the cost of livestock feed production.

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