temperature and humidity
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Abstract Extreme heat is annually the deadliest weather hazard in the U.S. and is strongly amplified by climate change. In Florida, summer heat waves have increased in frequency and duration, exacerbating negative human health impacts on a state with a substantial older population and industries (e.g., agriculture) that require frequent outdoor work. However, the combined impacts of temperature and humidity (heat stress) have not been previously investigated. For eight Florida cities, this study constructs summer climatologies and trend analyses (1950–2020) of two heat stress metrics: heat index (HI) and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). While both incorporate temperature and humidity, WBGT also includes wind and solar radiation, and is a more comprehensive measure of heat stress on the human body. With minor exceptions, results show increases in average summer daily maximum, mean, and minimum HI and WBGT throughout Florida. Daily minimum HI and WBGT exhibit statistically significant increases at all eight stations, emphasizing a hazardous rise in nighttime heat stress. Corresponding to other recent studies, HI and WBGT increases are largest in coastal subtropical locations in Central and South Florida (i.e., Daytona Beach, Tampa, Miami, Key West), but exhibit no conclusive relationship with urbanization changes. Finally, danger (103–124°F) HI and high (> 88°F) WBGT summer days exhibit significant frequency increases across the state. Especially at coastal locations in the Florida Peninsula and Keys, danger HI and high WBGT days now account for > 20% of total summer days, emphasizing a substantial escalation in heat stress, particularly since 2000.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 734
Jinyang Weng ◽  
Asad Rehman ◽  
Pengli Li ◽  
Liying Chang ◽  
Yidong Zhang ◽  

Due to the frequent occurrence of continuous high temperatures and heavy rain in summer, extremely high-temperature and high-humidity environments occur, which seriously harms crop growth. High temperature and humidity (HTH) stress have become the main environmental factors of combined stress in summer. The responses of morphological indexes, physiological and biochemical indexes, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured and combined with chloroplast ultrastructure and transcriptome sequencing to analyze the reasons for the difference in tolerance to HTH stress in HTH-sensitive ‘JIN TAI LANG’ and HTH-tolerant ‘JIN DI’ varieties. The results showed that with the extension of stress time, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of the two melon varieties increased rapidly, the leaf water content increased, and the tolerant varieties showed stronger antioxidant capacity. Among the sensitive cultivars, Pn, Fv/Fm, photosystem II, and photosystem I chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were severely inhibited and decreased rapidly with the extension of stress time, while the HTH-tolerant cultivars slightly decreased. The cell membrane and chloroplast damage in sensitive cultivars were more severe, and Lhca1, Lhca3, and Lhca4 proteins in photosystem II and Lhcb1-Lhcb6 proteins in photosystem I were inhibited compared with those in the tolerant cultivar. These conclusions may be the main reason for the different tolerances of the two cultivars. These findings will provide new insights into the response of other crops to HTH stress and also provide a basis for future research on the mechanism of HTH resistance in melon.

2022 ◽  
Vol 68 (1) ◽  
Tomas Melichar ◽  
Jiri Bydzovsky ◽  
Jiri Brozovsky ◽  
Miroslav Vacula

AbstractThe paper presents research focused on behaviour of cement-bonded particleboards with modified composition during sudden changes of temperature and humidity. Four types of boards were made—one control and three modified ones. Finely ground limestone was used as a modifying component in binder. Secondary wood particles made from crushing cuttings of cement-bonded particleboards were used as chips substituent. Two sets of test specimens (1 set = 6 test specimens) were manufactured. The first set was stored in laboratory conditions. The second set was subjected to 10 cycles of sudden changes of temperature (− 20 °C to + 70 °C) and humidity in accordance with EN 321 (further in the paper referred to as “wet–frost–dry cycle”.) After each cycle, dimensions and mass of the test specimens as well as ultrasonic pulse velocity were determined. A detailed analysis of structural changes in boards during cycling was carried out by an optical microscope. After 10 wet–frost–dry cycles were completed, bending strength and modulus of elasticity in bending were determined. The analysis of test results implies a very good relation between change of ultrasonic pulse velocity and width of cracks in the area of interfacial zone between cement matrix and wood particles. This finding also corresponds with dimensional and volumetric changes of the boards. Dependence of bending strength and modulus of elasticity in bending on composition of boards is apparent. Positive influence of secondary spruce chips on dimensional changes of cement-bonded particleboards caused by sudden changes of temperature and humidity was proved. Finely ground limestone contributes to more resistant structure of boards which leads to improved bending properties. Adverse conditions had more considerable influence on bending strength (decrease by 21% to 26%) than on modulus of elasticity in bending (decrease by 12% to 19%).

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (3) ◽  
pp. 291-296

 Individual thunder occasions at Madras (Meenambakkam) during 1981- 1990 have been critically examined and the frequency of thunder occurrence as well as the diurnal variations have been derived. Nature of thunderstorm as revealed in the release of squalls change of temperature and humidity have been explained. Synoptic situations causing the thunder activity at Madras are outlined. Possible guidelines/thumb rules to forecast local severe storms have been attempted and the results are discussed.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 1212 (1) ◽  
pp. 012047
Yanshori ◽  
D W Nugraha ◽  
D Santi

Abstract The main objective of this paper is to design an IoT (Internet of Things) to monitor temperature and humidity for smart gardens. Temperature sensors and humidity sensors measure environmental conditions and are processed by a microcontroller. The actuator used is a spray pump that is used to spray water into the air to lower the temperature. Data from the sensors and status from the actuators are sent to the server and can be monitored via a smartphone. The data collected can be analyzed for various purposes. The result obtained is the effect of spraying on temperature reduction.

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