photosystem ii
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
E. M. M. Bartieres ◽  
D. M. Dresch ◽  
L. C. Reis ◽  
Z. V. Pereira ◽  
R. M. Mussury ◽  

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the functioning of the photosystem II and quality of C. xanthocarpa seedlings cultivated under intermittent water deficit and shading levels and the influence of shading on recovery potential after suspension of the stress conditions. The seedlings were subjected to three levels of shading (0, 30, and 70%), six periods of evaluation (start: 0 days; 1st and 2nd photosynthesis zero: 1st and 2nd P0; 1st and 2nd recovery: 1stand 2nd REC; and END), and two forms of irrigation (control: periodically irrigated to maintain 70% substrate water retention capacity, and intermittent irrigation: suspension of irrigation). The plants subjected to intermittent irrigation conditions at 0% shading showed a reduction in water potential (Ψw) and potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and maximum efficiency of the photochemical process (Fv/F0) and an increase in basal quantum production of the non-photochemical processes (F0/Fm). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in the leaves than in the roots. The C. xanthocarpa is a species sensitive to water deficit but presents strategies to adapt to an environment under temporary water restriction, which are more temporary are most efficient under shading. The seedlings with water deficit at all levels of shading exhibited higher protective antioxidant activity and lower quality at 0% shading. The shading minimizes prevents permanent damage to the photosystem II and after the re-irrigation, the evaluated characteristics showed recovery with respect to the control group, except POD and SOD activities in the leaves.

2022 ◽  
A. William Rutherford ◽  
Andrea Fantuzzi ◽  
Dario Piano ◽  
Patrycja Haniewicz ◽  
Domenica Farci ◽  

In thylakoid membranes, Photosystem II monomers from the stromal lamellae contain the subunits PsbS and Psb27 (PSIIm-S/27), while Photosystem II monomers from granal regions (PSIIm) lack these subunits. Here, we have isolated and characterised these two types of Photosystem II complexes. The PSIIm-S/27 showed enhanced fluorescence, the near-absence of oxygen evolution, as well as limited and slow electron transfer from QA to QB compared to the near-normal activities in the granal PSIIm. However, when bicarbonate was added to the PSIIm-S/27, water splitting and QA to QB electron transfer rates were comparable to those in granal PSIIm. The findings suggest that the binding of PsbS and/or Psb27 inhibits forward electron transfer and lowers the binding affinity for the bicarbonate. This can be rationalized in terms of the recently discovered photoprotection role played by bicarbonate binding via the redox tuning of the QA/QA?- couple, which controls the charge recombination route, and this limits chlorophyll triplet mediated 1O2 formation (Brinkert K et al. (2016) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 113(43):12144-12149). These findings suggest that PSIIm-S/27 is an intermediate in the assembly of PSII in which PsbS and/or Psb27 restrict PSII activity while in transit, by using a bicarbonate-mediated switch and protective mechanism.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Ilektra Sperdouli ◽  
Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. Adamakis ◽  
Anelia Dobrikova ◽  
Emilia Apostolova ◽  
Anetta Hanć ◽  

Salvia sclarea L. is a Cd2+ tolerant medicinal herb with antifungal and antimicrobial properties cultivated for its pharmacological properties. However, accumulation of high Cd2+ content in its tissues increases the adverse health effects of Cd2+ in humans. Therefore, there is a serious demand to lower human Cd2+ intake. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the mitigative role of excess Zn2+ supply to Cd2+ uptake/translocation and toxicity in clary sage. Salvia plants were treated with excess Cd2+ (100 μM CdSO4) alone, and in combination with Zn2+ (900 μM ZnSO4), in modified Hoagland nutrient solution. The results demonstrate that S. sclarea plants exposed to Cd2+ toxicity accumulated a significant amount of Cd2+ in their tissues, with higher concentrations in roots than in leaves. Cadmium exposure enhanced total Zn2+ uptake but also decreased its translocation to leaves. The accumulated Cd2+ led to a substantial decrease in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and disrupted the chloroplast ultrastructure, which coincided with an increased lipid peroxidation. Zinc application decreased Cd2+ uptake and translocation to leaves, while it mitigated oxidative stress, restoring chloroplast ultrastructure. Excess Zn2+ ameliorated the adverse effects of Cd2+ on PSII photochemistry, increasing the fraction of energy used for photochemistry (ΦPSII) and restoring PSII redox state and maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), while decreasing excess excitation energy at PSII (EXC). We conclude that excess Zn2+ application eliminated the adverse effects of Cd2+ toxicity, reducing Cd2+ uptake and translocation and restoring chloroplast ultrastructure and PSII photochemical efficiency. Thus, excess Zn2+ application can be used as an important method for low Cd2+-accumulating crops, limiting Cd2+ entry into the food chain.

Martina Bečková ◽  
Roman Sobotka ◽  
Josef Komenda

AbstractThe repair of photosystem II is a key mechanism that keeps the light reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis functional. During this process, the PSII central subunit D1 is replaced with a newly synthesized copy while the neighbouring CP43 antenna with adjacent small subunits (CP43 module) is transiently detached. When the D2 protein is also damaged, it is degraded together with D1 leaving both the CP43 module and the second PSII antenna module CP47 unassembled. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the released CP43 and CP47 modules have been recently suggested to form a so-called no reaction centre complex (NRC). However, the data supporting the presence of NRC can also be interpreted as a co-migration of CP43 and CP47 modules during electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation without forming a mutual complex. To address the existence of NRC, we analysed Synechocystis PSII mutants accumulating one or both unassembled antenna modules as well as Synechocystis wild-type cells stressed with high light. The obtained results were not compatible with the existence of a stable NRC since each unassembled module was present as a separate protein complex with a mutually similar electrophoretic mobility regardless of the presence of the second module. The non-existence of NRC was further supported by isolation of the His-tagged CP43 and CP47 modules from strains lacking either D1 or D2 and their migration patterns on native gels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 734
Jinyang Weng ◽  
Asad Rehman ◽  
Pengli Li ◽  
Liying Chang ◽  
Yidong Zhang ◽  

Due to the frequent occurrence of continuous high temperatures and heavy rain in summer, extremely high-temperature and high-humidity environments occur, which seriously harms crop growth. High temperature and humidity (HTH) stress have become the main environmental factors of combined stress in summer. The responses of morphological indexes, physiological and biochemical indexes, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured and combined with chloroplast ultrastructure and transcriptome sequencing to analyze the reasons for the difference in tolerance to HTH stress in HTH-sensitive ‘JIN TAI LANG’ and HTH-tolerant ‘JIN DI’ varieties. The results showed that with the extension of stress time, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities of the two melon varieties increased rapidly, the leaf water content increased, and the tolerant varieties showed stronger antioxidant capacity. Among the sensitive cultivars, Pn, Fv/Fm, photosystem II, and photosystem I chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were severely inhibited and decreased rapidly with the extension of stress time, while the HTH-tolerant cultivars slightly decreased. The cell membrane and chloroplast damage in sensitive cultivars were more severe, and Lhca1, Lhca3, and Lhca4 proteins in photosystem II and Lhcb1-Lhcb6 proteins in photosystem I were inhibited compared with those in the tolerant cultivar. These conclusions may be the main reason for the different tolerances of the two cultivars. These findings will provide new insights into the response of other crops to HTH stress and also provide a basis for future research on the mechanism of HTH resistance in melon.

Virginia M. Johnson ◽  
Sandeep Biswas ◽  
Johnna L. Roose ◽  
Himadri B. Pakrasi ◽  
Haijun Liu

2022 ◽  
Connor A. Koellner ◽  
Michael Gau ◽  
Aleksander Polyak ◽  
Manish Bayana ◽  
Michael John Zdilla

A series of Ca-Mn clusters with the ligand 2-pyridinemethoxide (Py-CH2O) have been prepared with varying degrees of topological similarity to the biological oxygen-evolving complex. These clusters activate water as a...

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