Heat Stress
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhi Liu ◽  
Xiaoting Huang ◽  
Zujing Yang ◽  
Cheng Peng ◽  
Haitao Yu ◽  
...  

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in all eukaryotic organisms, participating growth and development, as well as stress response. In the present study, three MAPK genes were successfully identified from the genome of Chlamys farreri, respectively, named CfERK1/2, CfJNK, and Cfp38, and only one copy of ERK, JNK, and p38 were detected. Domain analysis indicated that CfMAPKs possessed the typical domains, including S_TKc, Pkinase, and PKc_like domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three CfMAPKs of MAPK subfamilies exists in the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates. All CfMAPKs specifically expressed during larval development and in adult tissues, and the expression level of CfERK1/2 and Cfp38 was apparently higher than that of CfJNK. Under heat stress, the expression of CfERK1/2 and Cfp38 were significantly downregulated and then upregulated in four tissues, while the expression of CfJNK increased in all tissues; these different expression patterns suggested a different molecular mechanism of CfMAPKs for bivalves to adapt to temperature changes. The diversity of CfMAPKs and their specific expression patterns provide valuable information for better understanding of the functions of MAPK cascades in bivalves.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1532
Author(s):  
Uchechukwu Paschal Chukwudi ◽  
Funso Raphael Kutu ◽  
Sydney Mavengahama

A rise in global temperature will reduce maize yield, particularly in Africa, where maize is a staple food. Therefore, improving maize yield under heat stress will promote food security in the region. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of heat stress on the grain yield of drought-tolerant maize varieties under varied growth conditions. The experimental design used was a 2 × 3 × 3 × 2 factorial fitted into a completely randomized design with four replications. The factors were heat stress, maize variety, soil amendment, and soil type. The results showed a better yield from sandy clay loam over loamy sand soil. Varieties WE5323 and ZM1523 amended with poultry manure gave the best yield under the non-heat and heat-stressed environments, respectively. Heat stress reduced the cob weight, grain weight, grain number, and stover dry weight by 64, 73, 69, and 23%, respectively. Grain number, grain weight, and cob weight were the most informative yield attributes in this study and should be considered in a maize selection program. The ranking for the maize varieties was WE5323 > ZM1523 > WE3128. Drought-tolerant maize varieties can be useful in heat stress mitigation. This information is useful for the simulation of maize yields for heat stress-prone areas in Sub-Saharan Africa.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1485
Author(s):  
Uchechukwu Paschal Chukwudi ◽  
Funso Raphael Kutu ◽  
Sydney Mavengahama

Food security in sub–Saharan Africa is threatened by the increasing incidence of heat stress. Therefore, ameliorating heat stress influence in plants is vital for sustainable crop production. A 2 × 3 × 3 × 2 factorial experiment fitted into a completely randomized design with four replications was performed. The factors were heat stress, maize variety, soil amendment, and soil type. The results showed that heat stress exerted a depressive effect on maize growth and yield attributes. It reduced the leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, dry biomass yield, and harvest index by 35%, 36%, 41%, 59%, and 78%, respectively. Sandy clay loam soil provided a better maize growth condition than loamy sand soil. Organic manure soil amendment improved maize growth attributes over the mineral fertilizer in the non–heat–stress environment and ameliorated the negative impact of heat stress in the heat–stress environment. The ranking of the attributes identified leaf area, dry biomass yield, stem diameter, and plant height as the most discriminating and representative attributes. These attributes should be considered in maize development projects for heat–stress prone areas. Selection of appropriate maize variety and accompanying soil amendment should be integrated into food security strategy as they influenced maize growth and yield under (non–)heat–stress conditions.


Author(s):  
Jiří Bezdíček ◽  
Andrea Nesvadbová ◽  
Alexander Makarevich ◽  
Elena Kubovičová

This review summarises current knowledge of the relationship between heat stress (HS) and reproduction in cattle. It focuses on research from the viewpoint of genetics (breed), from the viewpoint of reproduction physiology (in vivo and in vitro) and from the animal husbandry practice. From the viewpoint of animal husbandry, it was evidenced that heat stress influences reproduction before, during and after conception. Most publications suggest the negative impact of heat stress on the reproductive physiology of cows reflected in ovarian and follicular activity, in oocyte and embryo development, as well as in other processes studied under in vivo or in vitro conditions. There are also a number of products that the cell creates in response to heat stress, which is used as indicators of the stress (e.g. heat shock proteins). A number of publications also focus on how to prevent heat stress on the farm (e.g. shade, water shower) or during in vitro procedures, including the supplementation of the culture media with antioxidants like melatonin. Research of heat stress is very important in cattle breeding for preventing and reducing its effects on the farm and also in the context of climate changes and global atmospheric warming.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (15) ◽  
pp. 6902
Author(s):  
Eugene Huh ◽  
Wonil Lee ◽  
Yujin Choi ◽  
Tae Hee Lee ◽  
Myung Sook Oh

Heat stress induces the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, influences biological responses, and reduces energy metabolism. Geongangbuja-tang (GBT) and its components, Zingiberis Rhizoma (ZOR) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata (ALRP) have been used to induce energy metabolism; however, the effects of GBT and its ingredients on heat-induced inflammatory responses have not yet been investigated. In this study, we performed an open-field test to evaluate locomotor activity in mice. To assess the effects of GBT and its ingredients on inflammation, the protein levels of c-fos, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cortisol were measured in the mouse hypothalamus and serum. The results showed that GBT alleviated locomotive activity and reduced c-fos levels in a dose-dependent manner under the heat exposure. After investigating the active constituent of GBT, we found that compared to GBT and ZOR, ALRP significantly suppressed c-fos expression under heat stress. Subsequently, ALRP decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-9 and -13 and prostaglandin, under the heat stress in the mouse hypothalamus. Moreover, treatment with ALRP inhibited cortisol secretion in the mouse serum following heat exposure. These results indicate that GBT and its active component, ALRP, could be the thermoregulatory agents that regulate the HPA axis.


Author(s):  
Kuang-Teng Wang ◽  
Po-Kai Pan ◽  
Tsung-Meng Wu ◽  
Yu-Sheng Wu

We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of acetyl-xylogalactan on the activity of RAW264.7 macrophages against heat stress. To this end, we assessed cell survival, phagocytic activity, in-tracellular Ca2+ level, mitochondria potential exchange, apoptotic assay findings, galactosidase activity and the RNA-seq by NGS and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) expression. In our evaluation of macrophage morphology at 37°C and 41°C, the macrophages showed an oval shape at 41°C , unlike the spindle shape at 37°C. Therefore, 41°C was chosen as the heat stress condition. Subsequently, we designed an experiment to evaluate changes in the RAW264.7 macrophages after acetyl-xylogalactan treatment under heat stress. The survival of RAW264.7 macrophages treated with acetyl-xylogalactan was higher than that of controls that were not treated with acetyl-xylogalactan. Moreover, on the basis of the results of the annexin-V detection assay, the apoptotic activity of macrophages appeared to have reduced after treatment with ac-etyl-xylogalactan. Moreover, treatment with acetyl-xylogalactan resulted in a stronger recovery trend in the intracellular Ca2+ and mitochondrial membrane potential after heat stress. RNA sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) illustrated that Sarcodia suieae acetyl-xylogalactan could upregulate the expression of the anti-apoptosis Cflar gene and down-regulate the expression of the apoptosis factors Ddit3, and Hyou1 to protect macrophages under heat stress.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Uday Chand Jha ◽  
Harsh Nayyar ◽  
Ramesh Palakurthi ◽  
Rintu Jha ◽  
Vinod Valluri ◽  
...  

In the context of climate change, heat stress during the reproductive stages of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to significant yield losses. In order to identify the genomic regions responsible for heat stress tolerance, a recombinant inbred line population derived from DCP 92-3 (heat sensitive) and ICCV 92944 (heat tolerant) was genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach and evaluated for two consecutive years (2017 and 2018) under normal and late sown or heat stress environments. A high-density genetic map comprising 788 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers spanning 1,125 cM was constructed. Using composite interval mapping, a total of 77 QTLs (37 major and 40 minor) were identified for 12 of 13 traits. A genomic region on CaLG07 harbors quantitative trait loci (QTLs) explaining >30% phenotypic variation for days to pod initiation, 100 seed weight, and for nitrogen balance index explaining >10% PVE. In addition, we also reported for the first time major QTLs for proxy traits (physiological traits such as chlorophyll content, nitrogen balance index, normalized difference vegetative index, and cell membrane stability). Furthermore, 32 candidate genes in the QTL regions that encode the heat shock protein genes, heat shock transcription factors, are involved in flowering time regulation as well as pollen-specific genes. The major QTLs reported in this study, after validation, may be useful in molecular breeding for developing heat-tolerant superior lines or varieties.


Author(s):  
Quentin Willot ◽  
Ben Loos ◽  
John S. Terblanche

Developmental and adult thermal acclimation can have distinct, even opposite, effects on adult heat resistance in ectotherms. Yet, their relative contribution to heat-hardiness of ectotherms remains unclear despite the broad ecological implications thereof. Furthermore, the deterministic relationship between heat-knockdown and recovery from heat stress is poorly understood but significant for establishing causal links between climate variability and population dynamics. Here, using D. melanogaster in a full-factorial experimental design, we assess flies heat-tolerance in static stress assays, and document how developmental and adult acclimation interact with a distinct pattern to promote survival to heat-stress in adults. We show that warmer adult acclimation is the initial factor enhancing survival to constant stressful high temperatures in flies, but also that the interaction between adult and developmental acclimation becomes gradually more important to ensure survival as the stress persists. This provides an important framework revealing the dynamic interplay between these two forms of acclimation, that ultimately enhance thermal tolerance as a function of stress duration. Furthermore, by investigating recovery rates post-stress, we also show that the process of heat-hardening and recovery post heat knockdown are likely to be based on set of (at least partially) divergent mechanisms. This could bear ecological significance as a tradeoff may exist between increasing thermal tolerance and maximizing recovery rates post-stress, constraining population responses when exposed to variable and stressful climatic conditions.


Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 2213
Author(s):  
Jared Ruff ◽  
Thaina L. Barros ◽  
Joy Campbell ◽  
Ricardo González-Esquerra ◽  
Christine N. Vuong ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to see how spray-dried plasma (SDP) supplementation affected broiler chicken performance, intestinal permeability, and bone strength during persistent heat stress. One-day-old chicks (n = 480) were randomly assigned into twelve environmental corrals; four thermoneutral (TN-negative control, maintained at 24 °C from d 21–42); four heat stress (HS, exposed to 35 °C from d 21–42); and four heat stress treated with 2% SDP in the feed until d 28 followed by 1% SDP until d 42 (HS-SDP). The performance and serum levels of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) were evaluated at d 21, 28, 35, and 42. The tibias strength was evaluated on d 21 and 42. The increment in chicken temperature (p < 0.05) was observed two h following the increase in environmental temperature in both HS groups and was associated with decreased performance parameters compared with the TN group. At d 42 of age, the chickens exposed to HS had an impaired gut permeability and decreased tibia strength compared to the TN group (p < 0.05). However, partially feeding SDP mitigated these adverse effects significantly. These findings imply that using SDP strategically during stressful times, such as prolonged heat stress, may help mitigate its negative consequences.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xue Chen ◽  
Jia Nan Dong ◽  
Ji Ye Rong ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Wei Zhao ◽  
...  

Abstract This study aimed to explore the seasonal heat stress affects the milk yield, antioxidative levels and serum metabolites in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows during early lactation. A total of two hundred dairy cows were selected according to their calving months (June, temperature humidity index (THI) =66.72; July, THI=70.30; August, THI=69.32; September, THI=67.20; October, THI=59.45). Blood samples were collected on day 0, 21, 50, 80, 100 after calving for serum oxidative status analysis and milk yield was recorded every day. The lower average daily milk yield in cows that calved in June and July (P<0.05), and average daily milk yield of multiparous cows was higher than that of primiparous cows that calved in the same month (P<0.05), suggesting that seasonal (June) heat stress negatively affected milk yield in both primiparous and multiparous cows at early lactation. Besides, 15 and 11 serum metabolites were changed in heat stress (average THI = 70.30) group compared with non heat stress (average THI = 59.45) group in primiparous cows and multiparous cows, respectively. These metabolites were mainly involved in the pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and the metabolism of glycine, serine and threonine. These data suggested that heat stress negatively affected the milk yield and thus caused the the elevation of 2 the serum oxidative and antioxidative index Metabolic biomarkers associated with the heat stress 29 in serum were found 0 which providing the basement of evaluating indicator between heat stress and non heat stress groups in primiparous and multiparous cows.


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