The use of wood-based materials in building and construction is constantly increasing as environmental aspects and sustainability gain importance. For structural applications, however, there are many examples where hybrid material systems are needed to fulfil the specific mechanical requirements of the individual application. In particular, metal reinforcements are a common solution to enhance the mechanical properties of a wooden structural element. Metal-reinforced wood components further help to reduce cross-sectional sizes of load-bearing structures, improve the attachment of masonry or other materials, enhance the seismic safety and tremor dissipation capacity, as well as the durability of the structural elements in highly humid environments and under high permanent mechanical load. A critical factor to achieve these benefits, however, is the mechanical joint between the different material classes, namely the wood and metal parts. Currently, this joint is formed using epoxy or polyurethane (PU) adhesives, the former yielding highest mechanical strengths, whereas the latter presents a compromise between mechanical and economical constraints. Regarding sustainability and economic viability, the utilization of different adhesive systems would be preferable, whereas mechanical stabilities yielded for metal-wood joints do not permit for the use of other common adhesive systems in such structural applications. This study extends previous research on the use of non-thermal air plasma pretreatments for the formation of wood-metal joints. The plasma treatments of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] wood and anodized (E6/EV1) aluminum AlMgSi0.5 (6060) F22 were optimized, using water contact angle measurements to determine the effect and homogeneity of plasma treatments. The adhesive bond strengths of plasma-pretreated and untreated specimens were tested with commercial 2-component epoxy, PU, melamine-urea formaldehyde (MUF), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), and construction adhesive glue systems. The influence of plasma treatments on the mechanical performance of the compounds was evaluated for one selected glue system via bending strength tests. The impact of the hybrid interface between metal and wood was isolated for the tests by using five-layer laminates from three wood lamellae enclosing two aluminum plates, thereby excluding the influence of congeneric wood-wood bonds. The effect of the plasma treatments is discussed based on the chemical and physical modifications of the substrates and the respective interaction mechanisms with the glue systems.
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis (Carriere) J. Houzeau), native to China, is one of the most economically and ecologically important bamboo species. Since the economic interests and the strong clonality, it has been widely cultivated in southern China, which inevitably reduces the natural stands and leads to gene loss in this species. In this study, three natural populations of Moso bamboo distributed in Anhui, Guangxi, and Zhejiang province, were used to analyze the correlation between phenotypic traits, cell structure, and material properties from the perspective of phenotypic, genetic, and environmental. Among those traits and properties, fiber width was correlated with wall thickness at breast height and average nodes length under branch positively. Leaf length was correlated positively with fiber lumen diameter and parenchyma lumen diameter. Furthermore, it showed a very close correlation between moisture content, bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and diameter at breast height, clear height, and leaf length. The lumen diameter of fiber cell wall thickness is positively correlated with bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Density is positively correlated with parenchyma cell wall thickness. The experimental design is relatively detailed and representative, and the workload is huge. This study reflects the research objectives with scientific and rational experiments and data. This study will analyze the differences of various indicators from the perspective of genetic to build a bridge between micro-structure and macro-structure for rational utilization of the whole area of Moso bamboo resources in China.
The purpose of this paper is to systematically investigate the influence of build orientation on the anisotropic as-printed and as-sintered bending properties of 17-4PH stainless steel fabricated by metal fused filament fabrication (MFFF).
The bending properties of 17-4PH alloy fabricated by low-cost additive manufacturing (MFFF) using three build orientations (the Flat, On-edge and Upright orientations) are examined at both as-printed and as-sintered states.
Unlike tensile testing where the Flat and On-edge orientations provide similar as-sintered tensile properties, the On-edge orientation produces a significantly higher bending strain with a lower bending strength than the Flat orientation. This arises from the printed layer sliding due to the Poisson's effect, which is only observed in the On-edge orientation together with the alternated layers of highly deformed and shifted voids. The bending properties show that the Upright orientation exhibits the lowest bending properties and limited plasticity due to the layer delamination.
This study is the first work to study the effect of build orientation on the flexural properties for MFFF. This work gives insight information into anisotropy in flexural mode for MFFF part design.
In this research work, the development of Al-SiC composite material from rice husk and its parametric assessment is done using a CNC milling machine. They are further surface characterized, and mechanical properties such as BET surface area, SEM-EDX, and XRD, fracture toughness, tensile, and bending strength are studied. The machinability of the components is investigated for selected values of input-output parameters. Three castings, each with different particulate reinforcement combinations, are made with aluminum alloy (6061) using the stir casting method. BET surface area of extracted silica and Al-SiC composite material was found 374 m2/g and 150 m2/g, respectively. From results of BET surface area revealed that silica obtained from rice husk is more heterogeneous with a large surface area. A heterogeneous surface with larger pores was found through SEM images. XRD diffraction peaks show changes of amorphous silica into crystallinity in the composite material. The results also indicate that fracture toughness is very good at low temperatures and good machinability on CNC milling machines makes it suitable for aerospace applications.
AbstractIn this work, pitch-based carbon fibers were utilized to reinforce silicon carbide (SiC) composites via reaction melting infiltration (RMI) method by controlling the reaction temperature and resin carbon content. Thermal conductivities and bending strengths of composites obtained under different preparation conditions were characterized by various analytical methods. Results showed the formation of SiC whiskers (SiCw) during RMI process according to vapor—solid (VS) mechanism. SiCw played an important role in toughening the Cpf/SiC composites due to crack bridging, crack deflection, and SiCw pull-out. Increase in reaction temperature during RMI process led to an initial increase in thermal conductivity along in-plane and thickness directions of composites, followed by a decline. At reaction temperature of 1600 °C, thermal conductivities along the in-plane and thickness directions were estimated to be 203.00 and 39.59 W/(m·K), respectively. Under these conditions, bending strength was recorded as 186.15±3.95 MPa. Increase in resin carbon content before RMI process led to the generation of more SiC matrix. Thermal conductivities along in-plane and thickness directions remained stable with desirable values of 175.79 and 38.86 W/(m·K), respectively. By comparison, optimal bending strength improved to 244.62±3.07 MPa. In sum, these findings look promising for future application of pitch-based carbon fibers for reinforcement of SiC ceramic composites.
When wood is used as a structural material, the fact that it is a highly inhomogeneous material, which significantly affects its static and fatigue properties, presents a major challenge to engineers. In this paper, a novel approach to modelling the fatigue-life properties of wood is presented. In the model, the common inverse-power-law relationship between the structural amplitude loads and the corresponding number of load cycles to failure is augmented with the influence of the wood’s mass density, the loading direction and the processing lot. The model is based on the two-parametric conditional Weibull’s probability density function with a constant shape parameter and a scale parameter that is a function of the previously mentioned parameters. The proposed approach was validated using the example of experimental static and fatigue-strength data from spruce beams. It turned out that the newly presented model is capable of adequately replicating the spruce’s S-N curves with a scatter, despite the relatively scarce amount of experimental data, which came from different production lots that were loaded in different directions and had a significant variation in density. Based on the experimental data, the statistical model predicts that the lower density wood has better fatigue strength.
Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) belong to a special category of composite materials, offering great potential in terms of material properties due to the continuous volume structure of both composite components. While manufacturing of metal-ceramic IPC via existing casting and infiltration processes leads to structural deficits, semi-solid forming represents a promising technology for producing IPC components without such defects. Thereby, a solid open pore body made of ceramic is infiltrated with a metallic material in the semi-solid state. Good structural characteristics of the microstructure as the integrity of the open-pore bodies after infiltration and an almost none residual porosity within the composites have already been proven for this manufacturing route within a certain process window. On this basis, the following paper focuses on the mechanical properties such as bending strength of metal-ceramic IPC produced by using semi-solid forming technology. Thereby, the impact of the significant process parameters on these properties is analysed within a suitable process window. Furthermore, a fractographic analysis is carried out by observing and interpreting the fracture behaviour during these tests and the fracture surface thereafter.
The aim of this article was to analyze the fracture behavior of geopolymer composites based on fly ash or metakaolin with fine aggregate and river sand, with three types of reinforcement: glass, carbon, and aramid fiber, at three different temperatures, approximately: 3 °C, 20 °C, and 50 °C. The temperatures were selected as a future work temperature for composites designed for additive manufacturing technology. The main research method used was bending strength tests in accordance with European standard EN 12390-5. The results showed that the addition of fibers significantly improved the bending strength of all composites. The best results at room temperature were achieved for the metakaolin-based composites and sand reinforced with 2% wt. aramid fiber—17 MPa. The results at 50 °C showed a significant decrease in the bending strength for almost all compositions, which are unexpected results, taking into account the fact that geopolymers are described as materials dedicated to working at high temperatures. The test at low temperature (ca. 3 °C) showed an increase in the bending strength for almost all compositions. The grounds of this type of behavior have not been clearly stated; however, the likely causes of this are discussed.