vigorous physical activity
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Isabelle Pitrou ◽  
Helen-Maria Vasiliadis ◽  
Carol Hudon

Abstract Objective To examine the associations between BMI categories and subsequent 3-year cognitive decline among older adults, and to test whether physical activity modifies the associations. Methods Study sample included n = 1028 cognitively unimpaired older adults participating in the Étude sur la Santé des Aînés (ESA)-Services longitudinal study and followed 3 years later. Cognitive decline was defined as a decrease of > 3 points in MMSE scores between baseline and follow-up. BMI categories (normal weight (reference), underweight, overweight, obese) were derived from self-reported weight and height. Moderate to vigorous physical activity of ≥20 min (# of times per week) was self-reported. The presence of chronic disorders was ascertained from administrative and self-reported data. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the risk of cognitive decline associated with BMI categories stratified by weekly physical activity (≥140 min), the presence of metabolic, cardiovascular and anxio-depressive disorders. Results In the overall sample, there was no evidence that underweight, overweight, or obesity, as compared to normal weight, was associated with cognitive decline, after adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle factors, and comorbidities. Individuals with overweight reporting high physical activity had lower odds of cognitive decline (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07–0.89), whereas no association was observed in individuals with overweight reporting low physical activity (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.41–1.75). Among participants with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, individuals with overweight reporting high physical activity had lower odds of cognitive decline (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01–0.59 and OR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01–0.92 respectively), whereas no association was observed in those with low physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity modifies the association between overweight and cognitive decline in older adults overall, as in those with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Results highlight the importance of promoting and encouraging regular physical activity in older adults with overweight as prevention against cognitive decline.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 366
Su Hyun Park ◽  
Jiali Yao ◽  
Xin Hui Chua ◽  
Suresh Rama Chandran ◽  
Daphne S. L. Gardner ◽  

We examined how dietary and physical activity behaviors influence fluctuations in blood glucose levels over a seven-day period in people at high risk for diabetes. Twenty-eight participants underwent a mixed meal tolerance test to assess glucose homeostasis at baseline. Subsequently, they wore an accelerometer to assess movement behaviors, recorded their dietary intakes through a mobile phone application, and wore a flash glucose monitoring device that measured glucose levels every 15 min for seven days. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations of metabolic and lifestyle risk factors with glycemic variability. Higher BMI, amount of body fat, and selected markers of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance from the meal tolerance test were associated with higher mean glucose levels during the seven days. Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake were independently associated with less variation in glucose levels (CV%). Higher protein and polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes were associated with more time-in-range. In contrast, higher carbohydrate intake was associated with less time-in-range. Our findings suggest that dietary composition (a higher intake of polyunsaturated fat and protein and lower intake of carbohydrates) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity may reduce fluctuations in glucose levels in persons at high risk of diabetes.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Herman de Vries ◽  
Wim Kamphuis ◽  
Cees van der Schans ◽  
Robbert Sanderman ◽  
Hilbrand Oldenhuis

The emergence of wearable sensors that allow for unobtrusive monitoring of physiological and behavioural patterns introduces new opportunities to study the impact of stress in a real-world context. This study explores to what extent within-subject trends in daily Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and daily HRV fluctuations are associated with longitudinal changes in stress, depression, anxiety, and somatisation. Nine Dutch police officers collected daily nocturnal HRV data using an Oura ring during 15–55 weeks. Participants filled in the Four-Dimensional Symptoms Questionnaire every 5 weeks. A sample of 47 five-week observations was collected and analysed using multiple regression. After controlling for trends in total sleep time, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and alcohol use, an increasing trend in the seven-day rolling standard deviation of the HRV (HRVsd) was associated with increases in stress and somatisation over 5 weeks. Furthermore, an increasing HRV trend buffered against the association between HRVsd trend and somatisation change, undoing this association when it was combined with increasing HRV. Depression and anxiety could not be related to trends in HRV or HRVsd, which was related to observed floor effects. These results show that monitoring trends in daily HRV via wearables holds promise for automated stress monitoring and providing personalised feedback.

2022 ◽  
Richard Tyler ◽  
Andrew J. Atkin ◽  
Jack R. Dainty ◽  
Dorothea Dumuid ◽  
Stuart J. Fairclough

Abstract Background The study aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations between 24-hour activity compositions and motor competence in children and adolescents, while stratifying by sex and school type, and investigate the predicted differences in motor competence when time was reallocated between activity behaviours. Methods Data were collected from 359 participants (aged 11.5±1.4 years; 49.3% boys; 96.9% White British). Seven-day 24-hour activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time, light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) were assessed using wrist-worn accelerometers. Motor competence outcomes were obtained using the Dragon Challenge (process, product, time, and overall scores). Linear mixed models examined associations between activity behaviour compositions and motor competence outcomes for all participants and stratified by school type (primary or secondary) and sex. Post-hoc analyses modelled the influence of reallocating fixed durations of time between activity behaviours on outcomes. Results In all participants, relative to other activity behaviours, MVPA had the strongest associations with motor competence outcomes. The stratified models displayed that MVPA had the strongest associations with outcomes in both sexes, irrespective of school type. The largest positive, and negative predicted differences occurred when MVPA replaced LPA or sleep, and when LPA or sleep replaced MVPA, respectively. Conclusions Relative to other activity behaviours, MVPA appears to have the greatest influence overall on motor competence outcomes. Reallocating time from LPA or sleep to MVPA reflected the largest positive predicted changes in motor competence outcomes. Therefore, our findings reinforce the key role of MVPA for children’s and adolescents’ motor competence.

Zachary Wahl-Alexander

The summer months have recently been identified as a time of the year when children gain excess weight. Despite contrary beliefs, youth are more susceptible to weight gain and fitness losses during this time. Summer camps have been identified as a possible solution to reduce declines in overall health during these months. The purpose of this study was to establish expected step counts and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) values for a variety of activities in one residential camp. Participants included 188 campers (M age = 8.7). Sessions included a variety of invasion, target, net/wall and fitness activities. Step counts and MVPA were tracked across 51 days, incorporating 839 activity sessions using a NL–1000 (New Lifestyle Inc., Lee Summit, MO, USA) accelerometer to track campers’ activity. Means and steps/minute were calculated for each activity. Invasion games represented the greatest opportunity for campers to engage in physical activity. Findings are useful for researchers and practitioners to evaluate physical activity and MVPA at camp settings.

Yazan A. Al-Ajlouni ◽  
Su Hyun Park ◽  
Jude Alawa ◽  
Ban Dodin ◽  
Ghaith Shamaileh ◽  

Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, initially responded to an outbreak of COVID-19 cases within its own borders by imposing a 7-week strict lockdown and closure of international and domestic travel. Such measures drastically influenced lifestyle behaviors of the population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of physical activity, and its association with mental and sleep health outcomes among Jordanians during a period of COVID-19 induced lockdown. Validated questionnaires were administered using a web-based platform to evaluate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), anxiety and depressive symptoms, sleep health, and sociodemographic characteristics. A modified Poisson regression model with robust error variance was used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to participants who met the guidelines, those who did not had significantly higher prevalence of moderate or severe anxiety symptoms than that of minimal or mild anxiety symptoms and increased depressive symptoms. Insufficient MVPA was associated with higher prevalence of poor sleep quality, short sleep duration (<7 h) and sleep problems. Overall, sufficient MVPA was associated with better mental and sleep health during the COVID-19 induced nation-wide lockdown in Jordan. While further research is necessary, promoting physical activity during the lockdown could potentially improve mental and sleep health outcomes among the population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Laura Dallolio ◽  
Sofia Marini ◽  
Alice Masini ◽  
Stefania Toselli ◽  
Rita Stagni ◽  

Abstract Background The World Health Organization stated an average of 60 min of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) that children should accumulate every day. Nevertheless physical inactivity is growing and, due to restrictions imposed during pandemic, PA levels of children might be more negatively affected. The study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the PA of an Italian sample of primary school children by comparing it before and during COVID-19 considering gender differences. Methods A pre-post analysis (October 2019–January 2021) was conducted using a randomized sample (N = 77) from the I-MOVE study settled in an Italian primary school. Both objective (Actigraph accelerometers) and self-reported (PAQ-c questionnaires) assessments of PA were performed. Changes were compared using T-Student and Chi-Square test. Gender differences were calculated using Anova. Results Weekly and daily minutes time spent in MVPA significantly decreased respectively by − 30.59 ± 120.87 and − 15.32 ± 16.21 from before to during pandemic while the weekly time spent in sedentary behaviour increased (+ 1196.01 ± 381.49). PAQ-c scores followed the same negative trend (− 0.87 ± 0.72). Boys seem to have suffered more than girls from the imposed restrictions. Conclusion These findings outline the need for strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviours in children to prevent COVID-19 restriction long-term effects.

Séverine Sabia ◽  
Manasa Shanta Yerramalla ◽  
Teresa Liu-Ambrose

AbstractAccelerometers measure the acceleration of the body part they are attached and allow to estimate time spent in activity levels (sedentary behaviour, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and sleep over a 24-h period for several consecutive days. These advantages come with the challenges to analyse the large amount of data while integrating dimensions of both physical activity/sedentary behaviour and sleep domains. This commentary raises the questions of 1) how to classify sleep breaks (i.e. wake after sleep onset) during the night within the 24-h movement behaviour framework and 2) how to assess their impact on health while also accounting for night time sleep duration and time in sedentary behaviour and physical activity during the day. The authors advocate for future collaborations between researchers from the physical activity/sedentary behaviour and sleep research fields to ensure appropriate analysis and interpretation of the tremendous amount of data recorded by the newer generation accelerometers. This is the only way forward to provide meaningfully accurate evidence to inform future 24-h movement behaviour guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Gregore I. Mielke ◽  
Deborah C. Malta ◽  
Bruno P. Nunes ◽  
John Cairney

Abstract Background To date, no research has investigated social determinants of leisure time physical activity through the lens of intersectionality in a low- and middle-income country. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the intersectionality in leisure time physical activity in a nationwide sample of Brazilian adults. Methods Data from the Brazilian National Health Survey conducted in 2013 were analysed (N = 58,429). Prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity (150+ minutes per week in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) was estimated according to gender, racial identity, education and income, and according to multiple combinations of these sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., multiple jeopardy index). Results The prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity was 22.9% (95%CI: 22.3 to 23.6). Overall, the prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity was highest among men, individuals with white skin colour, and among those in the highest group of education and income. Among men, white, with a university degree and in the highest quartile of income (3% of the population), the prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity was 48%. Among non-white women with low education and low income (8.1% of the population), the prevalence of sufficient leisure time physical activity was 9.8%. Conclusion Informed by the theory of intersectionality, findings of this study have shown that intersections of gender, racial identity and socioeconomic position of the Brazilian society strongly influence leisure time physical activity at the individual level. Targeted interventions to increase leisure time physical activity should address the complexities of social status intersections.

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