european union policy
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Arno Van Der Zwet ◽  
John Connolly ◽  
Christopher Huggins ◽  
Craig McAngus

This article examines the ways in which third countries can engage with, and respond to, European Union policy-making processes. A novel analytical framework based on the concept of network resilience which consists of an institutional, political and policy dimension is operationalised to understand third country access to European Union policy-making. Empirically, the article examines the experiences of three non-European Union countries, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Norway in the context of the European Union’s Common Fisheries Policy. The article concludes by presenting a research agenda based on an in-depth analysis of network resilience and reflects on what the findings mean for future research, particularly within the context of understanding the development of UK–EU post-Brexit relations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 111-134
Anatoliy Khudoliy

The purpose of the chapter is to assess and link the issues of migration flows with the accession process of the Balkan countries and the European Union enlargement policy. The chapter argues that despite the recent changes in the EU commission's policy towards the candidate countries there is more to be done to foster the process and encourage domestic reforms in the countries. The chapter examines the process of migration along the Balkan migration route from 2001 till 2021 and its influence on the European Union policy and the policy of Balkan countries. The author links the issue of migration flows with the accession process of the Balkan countries, traces the connection between the issue of migration flows with the European Union enlargement, and analyzes the legal steps taken by the EU and the countries of the region in order to control the process of migration.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Ewa Kucharska-Stasiak ◽  
Sabina Źróbek ◽  
Konrad Żelazowski

Adequate housing conditions are an indicator of a decent life, whereas the lack is one of the main reason behind so-called social exclusion. The importance of housing, in ensuring the social safety of citizens, as well as supporting social equity, has been emphasized for decades. Housing, however, also has an important economic dimension. A developed housing sector, in a broad sense guaranteeing the right to housing, is indicated as one of the main conditions for long-term economic growth. The significant role of housing, in deepening integrational processes on the old continent, has also been observed by the European Union. This article is a review and comprises of an attempt to synthesize arguments justifying the need to expand the European Union policy to include housing-related issues. For this purpose, a historical context of the perception of the role of housing in the process of European integration is presented; it characterizes the main phases of incorporating housing into EU policy, as well as indicating the most important areas and instruments of the European Union’s influence on the housing policy of member countries, along with an assessment of their results. The work makes use of the method of the critical analysis of literature, as well as an analysis of EU legal regulations, accounts, and reports referring to the housing sphere. Studies confirm the need for active involvement, aimed at including housing in the scope of EU competencies. The undertaken initiatives of a political, social, economic, environmental, and legal nature are the main forms of recommendations, propositions, and instruments supporting the implementation of common values. Studies conducted to date indicate that the implementation of a single EU housing policy for all member states is neither a simple nor desired task. A more effective solution would unquestionably be seeking out general solutions, addressed to groups of countries functioning under similar conditions. A European housing programme, which holds the status of European law supporting national housing policies, should be such a solution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Meri Koivusalo ◽  
Noora Heinonen ◽  
Liina-Kaisa Tynkkynen

Abstract Background Obligations arising from trade and investment agreements can affect how governments can regulate and organise health systems. The European Union has made explicit statements of safeguarding policy space for health systems. We assessed to what extent health systems were safeguarded in trade negotiations using the European Union (EU) negotiation proposals for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) and the negotiated agreement for the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA). Methods We assessed if and to what extent the European Union policy assurances were upheld in trade negotiations. Our assessment was made using three process tracing informed tests. The tests examined: i) what was covered in negotiation proposals of services and investment chapters, ii) if treatment of health services differed from treatment of another category of services (audiovisual services) with similar EU Treaty considerations, and iii) if other means of general exceptions, declarations or emphases on right to regulate could have resulted in the same outcome. Results Our analysis shows that the European Union had sought to secure policy space for publicly funded health services for services chapter, but not for investment and investment protection chapters. In comparison to audiovisual services, exceptions for health services fall short from those on audiovisual services. There is little evidence that the same outcome could have been achieved using other avenues. Conclusions The European Union has not achieved its own assurances of protection of regulatory policy space for health services in trade negotiations. The European Union trade negotiation priorities need to change to ensure that its negotiation practices comply with its own assurances for health services and sustainable financing of health systems.

2021 ◽  
pp. 135050682110293
Sharron FitzGerald ◽  
Jane Freedman

In this article, we reflect on our personal experience of acting as ‘independent academic experts’ in an European Union (EU) policy forum, to reflect on how the EU utilises gender to legitimise certain policy discourses in combating sex trafficking. Starting from our personal experience, we draw on wider feminist research on gender expertise and on Fraser’s new reflexive theory of political injustice, to consider how the EU structures debates in this area to determine ‘who’ is entitled to speak and be heard on this issue. In a context in which sex trafficking policy intersects with a variety of competing agendas on – among other things – law and order, organised crime, immigration, asylum and border security policy, our argument will suggest that the exclusion of critical feminist voices and lack of alternative perspectives permits much scope for continuing inequality and injustice.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (12) ◽  
pp. 3587
Aneta Bełdycka-Bórawska ◽  
Piotr Bórawski ◽  
Michał Borychowski ◽  
Rafał Wyszomierski ◽  
Marek Bartłomiej Bórawski ◽  

The aim of this research was to present the changes in biomass production, especially pellets in Poland, in the context of world’s and European Union’s (EU) climate and energy policy, compared to other renewable energy sources. We also analyzed the law concerning the biomass production in the EU. Finally, we have elaborated the prognosis of the pellet production on the world scale. We have used different methods to achieve the goals, among which the most important are the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH model) and prognosis. We also compared the results of pellet production in different countries in the European Union. The results were presented in tabular and graphic form. We have received the data from Eurostat and the Main Statistical Office (MSO) in Poland. Our research proves the increase of biomass and pellet production on the global scale. Moreover, global wood pellet production increased by 972% in the years 2005–18. We can conclude that this increase was the result of increasing demand for renewable energy sources. The first research hypothesis assumed that the changes in the European Union Policy have impacted the increase of biomass production in the world. Our prognosis confirmed the second hypothesis that the development of pellets will increase as the result of increasing global demand. The use of more renewable energy sources is necessary to decrease the degradation of the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 6796
Alejandro Ortega Hortelano ◽  
Monica Grosso ◽  
Gary Haq ◽  
Anastasios Tsakalidis

Several gender differences exist in the transport sector. These include accessibility to transport modes, safety and security when travelling, and the participation of women in transport research and innovation (R&I). In order to achieve sustainable and inclusive transport, planners and policymakers should consider all impacts on gender equality. This paper sheds light on two main issues which interconnect through the decision-making process. The first relates to women’s behaviour in the transport system (i.e., studies the gender mobility gap). The second concerns the role of women in transport R&I, particularly the topics covered by research projects and relevant descriptive statistics of their participation in the sector. Based on a literature review, this paper identifies critical issues in the European transport sector and key European Union policy initiatives and regulations that address gender equality and transport. The European Commission’s Transport Research and Innovation Monitoring and Information System (TRIMIS) is used to summarise the status and evolution of European research in addressing women’s issues in transport. It also analyses the participation of women in European transport research and innovation activities. The paper assesses progress to date and identifies challenges and opportunities for women, mobility, and transport. It concludes by providing policy recommendations to overcome the major barriers to gender equality in the European transport sector and to transport research and innovation.

Sharpe Marina

This chapter highlights the African approach to refugees, analysing the regional legal framework anchored by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Convention. The regional legal regime for refugees includes treaty and institutional components. The treaty framework is comprised of the Refugee and OAU conventions and international and regional human rights law, including but not limited to the two covenants, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and African instruments on the rights of women and children. The chapter then addresses regional organizations with relevant mandates: African Union (AU) bodies and judicial organs including the AU Commission, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights, and the African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. It also looks at the role of civil society, as well as contemporary refugee protection achievements and challenges. These include the implementation, in terms of both refugee status determination and rights, of the regional legal framework in national jurisdictions; the rise of displacement in the context of climate change and disasters; and the relationship between European Union policy responses to the so-called migration crisis and refugee protection in Africa.

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