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2022 ◽  
pp. 216507992110394
Victoria F. Michalchuk ◽  
Soo-Jeong Lee ◽  
Catherine M. Waters ◽  
Oi Saeng Hong ◽  
Yoshimi Fukuoka

Background Many American workers spend over 7 hours a day at work in primarily sedentary office work. Physical activity is a key aspect of optimizing health and preventing disease; yet, 80% of American adults do not meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. In this systematic review, the relationship between physical work environment and physical activity among office workers was explored. Methods Of the 321 studies screened, 26 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included for evaluation in this systematic review. Results Of the 26 studies, four were cross-sectional studies, 14 were quasi-experimental studies, and eight were randomized control trials. Physical activity during the workday was measured using self-report surveys and electromechanical devices such as accelerometers. Physical work environments examined by the studies included different types of desks ( n = 16), office arrangements ( n = 5), and building design ( n = 5). In nine studies, office environments and building work environments designed to promote activity using active design principles such as stairs and flexible workspaces were associated with increased physical activity. Sit–stand desks reduced overall sitting time, but had a minimal effect on physical activity. Conclusion/Application to practice Offices and buildings designed for activity had the largest impact on physical activity among office workers. To increase physical activity in office workers, focus should be placed on opportunities to increase incidental movement that can increase physical activity throughout the workday. Occupational health nurses should advocate workspace designs that can increase physical activity in workers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Chien-Yu Lin ◽  
Mohammad Javad Koohsari ◽  
Yung Liao ◽  
Kaori Ishii ◽  
Ai Shibata ◽  

AbstractWorkplace settings—both internal and external—can influence how workers are physically active or sedentary. Although research has identified some indoor environmental attributes associated with sitting at work, few studies have examined associations of workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with workplace sitting time. We examined the cross-sectional associations of perceived and objective workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with sitting time at work and for transport among desk-based workers in Japan. Data were collected from a nationwide online survey. The Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (n = 2137) and Walk Score® (for a subsample of participants; n = 1163) were used to assess perceived and objective built-environment attributes of workplace neighbourhoods. Self-reported daily average sitting time at work, in cars and in public transport was measured using a Japanese validated questionnaire. Linear regression models estimated the associations of workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes with sitting time. All perceived workplace neighbourhood built-environment attributes were positively correlated with Walk Score®. However, statistically significant associations with Walk Score® were found for sitting for transport but not for sitting at work. Workers who perceived their workplace neighbourhoods to be more walkable reported a longer time sitting at work and in public transport but a shorter sitting time in cars. Our findings suggest that walkable workplace neighbourhoods may discourage longer car use but have workplaces where workers spend a long time sitting at work. The latter finding further suggests that there may be missed opportunities for desk-based workers to reduce sitting time. Future workplace interventions to reduce sitting time may be developed, taking advantage of the opportunities to take time away from work in workplace neighbourhoods.

2022 ◽  
Wayne Gao ◽  
Mattia Sanna ◽  
Yea-Hung Chen ◽  
Min-Kuang Tsai ◽  
Po-Jung Lu ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFor the first time, the 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity recommend reducing sedentary behaviors due to their health consequences. Less is known on the effect of prolonged occupational sitting, especially in the context of low physical activity engagement.This study aims at quantifying cardiovascular risk associated with prolonged occupational sitting and determining the additional amount of physical activity that may be needed to attenuate it.MethodsA cohort comprising 481,688 participants in a health surveillance program in Taiwan was followed between 1996 and 2017, collecting data on occupational sitting time, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) habits, lifestyle, and metabolic parameters. The all-cause and expanded cardiovascular disease (CVD + diabetes mellitus + kidney disease) mortality associated with three occupational sitting volumes (mostly sitting, alternating sitting and non-sitting, mostly non-sitting) was analyzed applying multivariate Cox regression models to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for all participants and by subgroups, including five levels of LTPA. Deaths in the first two years of follow-up were excluded to avoid reverse causality.ResultsThe study recorded 26,257 deaths during a mean follow-up period of 12.85 years. Individuals mostly sitting at work had a higher mortality risk than those mostly non-sitting, both from all causes (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.11-1.20) and from expanded CVD (HR:1.46, 95% CI:1.35-1.58), after adjusting for gender, age, education, smoking, drinking, and body mass index. Individuals alternating sitting and non-sitting at work did not experience increased risk for all-cause mortality, compared to individuals mostly non-sitting at work (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.97-1.05), but did experience higher risk of deaths due to expanded CVD (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04-1.23). Individuals engaged in low (15-29 min/day) or no (<15 min/day) LTPA, who mostly sit at work, would need to increase their LTPA by 15 and 30 minutes respectively to reduce their risk of mortality to that of similarly inactive individuals who mostly do not sit at work.ConclusionsAs part of modern lifestyles, prolonged occupational sitting is considered normal and has not received due attention, even though its deleterious effect has been largely proved. Alternating sitting and non-sitting at work, as well as an extra 15 to 30 min/day of LTPA, can attenuate the harms of prolonged occupational sitting. Thus, emphasizing the associated harms and suggesting workplace system changes could help the society to de-normalize this common behavior, similarly to the process of de-normalizing smoking.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Emerald G. Heiland ◽  
Karin Kjellenberg ◽  
Olga Tarassova ◽  
Maria Fernström ◽  
Gisela Nyberg ◽  

Abstract Background Physical activity breaks are widely being implemented in school settings as a solution to increase academic performance and reduce sitting time. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms suggested to improve cognitive function from physical activity and the frequency, intensity, and duration of the breaks remain unknown. This study will investigate the effects of frequent, short physical activity breaks during prolonged sitting on task-related prefrontal cerebral blood flow, cognitive performance, and psychological factors. Additionally, the moderating and mediating effects of arterial stiffness on changes in cerebral blood flow will be tested. Methods This is a protocol for a randomized crossover study that will recruit 16 adolescents (13–14 years old). Participants will undergo three different conditions in a randomized order, on three separate days, involving sitting 80 min with a different type of break every 17 min for 3 min. The breaks will consist of (1) seated social breaks, (2) simple resistance activities, and (3) step-up activities. Before and after the 80-min conditions, prefrontal cerebral blood flow changes will be measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (primary outcome), while performing working memory tasks (1-, 2-, and 3-back tests). Arterial stiffness (augmentation index and pulse wave velocity) and psychological factors will also be assessed pre and post the 80-min interventions. Discussion Publication of this protocol will help to increase rigor in science. The results will inform regarding the underlying mechanisms driving the association between physical activity breaks and cognitive performance. This information can be used for designing effective and feasible interventions to be implemented in schools. Trial registration, NCT04552626. Retrospectively registered on September 21, 2020.

2022 ◽  
Christian Brakenridge ◽  
Agus Salim ◽  
Genevieve Nissa Healy ◽  
Ruth Grigg ◽  
Alison Carver ◽  

BACKGROUND Lockdown restrictions reduce COVID-19 community transmission; however, they may pose challenges for non-communicable disease management. A 112-day hard lockdown in Victoria, Australia (commencing March 23, 2020), which affected an intervention trial of reducing and breaking up sitting time in desk workers with type 2 diabetes who were using a provided consumer grade activity tracker (Fitbit). OBJECTIVE To compare continuously recorded activity levels preceding and during COVID-19 lockdown restrictions among working adults with type 2 diabetes participating in a sitting less and moving more intervention. METHODS Eleven participants (8/11 male; mean [SD] age 52.8 [5.0] years) in Melbourne, Australia had Fitbit activity tracked before (mean [SD]: 122.7 [47.9] days) and during (99.7 [62.5] days) city-wide COVID-19 lockdown restrictions. Regression models compared device (Fitbit Inspire HR)-derived activity (steps; METs [metabolic equivalents], mean time in sedentary, lightly, fairly, and very active minutes, and usual bout durations) during restrictions, to pre-restriction. Relative rates (RR) <1.00 indicated a decline in activity levels following restrictions. RESULTS Total wear days were 2447. There was a decrease in steps (-1,584 steps; RR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.89, 0.93), METs (-83 METs; RR: 0.95; 95%CI: 0.94, 0.95), lightly active (RR: 0.96; 95%CI: 0.92, 0.99), fairly active (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.79, 0.85), very active (RR: 0.92; 95%CI: 0.89, 0.95) intensity minutes, and increases in sedentary minutes (RR: 1.03; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.06). Only very active (+5.1mins) and sedentary (+4.3mins) bout durations changed significantly. CONCLUSIONS In adults with type 2 diabetes, COVID-19 lockdown restrictions were associated with decreases in overall activity levels and increases in very active and sedentary bout durations. A Fitbit monitor provided meaningful continuous long term data in this context. CLINICALTRIAL Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN12618001159246

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Janiquelli Barbosa Silva ◽  
Bianca Caroline Elias ◽  
Sarah Warkentin ◽  
Laís Amaral Mais ◽  
Tulio Konstantyner

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with the consumption of ultra-processed foods by Brazilian adolescents. Methods: The sample was representative of adolescents and participants in the cross-sectional population-based study National Survey of School Health, 2015 edition (PeNSE-2015). A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The variable weekly consumption of ultra-processed foods was considered, and consumption more than seven times a week was considered excessive. Descriptive and inferential analyses of demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and environmental characteristics potentially associated with the outcome were performed. Poisson's multiple regression model was adjusted to control for confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of excessive consumption of ultra-processed foods among 16,324 adolescents in Brazil was 75.4%. Nine factors independently associated with this outcome were identified: age under 15 years (RR 1.08; p<0.001), daily sitting time greater than four hours (RR 1.13; p<0.001), eating while watching TV or studying more than four days a week (RR 1.09; p<0.001), daily TV time greater than three hours (RR 1.08; p<0.001), breakfast frequency less than four days a week (RR 1,03; p=0.001), having a cell phone (RR 1.12; p<0.001), absent maternal education (RR 0.88; p<0.001), being enrolled in a private school (RR 1.05; p=0.002) located in the urban area (RR 1.13; p=0.002). Conclusions: The results express the multifactorial characteristic of excessive consumption of ultra-processed foods and suggest the need for the development and implementation of health policies to guide the consumption of these foods and the importance of adopting healthy behaviors for this population group in both school and home environments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 4
Uanderson Silva Pirôpo ◽  
Silvania Moraes Costa ◽  
Ícaro JS Ribeiro ◽  
Ivna Vidal Freire ◽  
Ludmila Schettino ◽  

Objectives: The maintenance of the postural balance is fundamental for the daily living activities, as well as for the practice of physical exercise. However, the aging process and sedentary behavior (i.e., large sitting time) lead to changes biological systems, impairing postural balance with consequent increased falls risk. On the other hand, physical activity practice is a protective factor against these trends. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of physical activity profile and sedentary behavior on postural control in community-dwelling old adults.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 208 community-dwelling old adults, which were stratified as sufficiently or insufficiently physically active and with or without sedentary behavior. Then, they were grouped as follow: G1 (sufficiently physically active and without sedentary behavior), G2 (insufficiently physically active, but without sedentary behavior), G3 (sufficiently physically active, but with sedentary behavior), and G4 (insufficiently physically active and with sedentary behavior).Results: Stabilometric parameters (sway area, total length of center of pressure [CoP] trajectory, and the mean velocity of CP displacement) were obtained to evaluate the postural control. There was significant difference between G1 and G4 on mean velocity of CoP displacement (p < 0.05).Conclusions: The coexistence of sedentary behavior and insufficient physically active profile seem to impact negatively on postural control.

Thomas D. Griffiths ◽  
Diane Crone ◽  
Mike Stembridge ◽  
Rachel N. Lord

Prolonged sitting negatively affects several cardiovascular disease biomarkers. Current workplace physical activity interventions to reduce sitting result in inconsistent uptake and adherence rates. Co-production attempts to improve the translation of evidence to practice through engaging the participants within the intervention design, improving the context sensitivity and acceptability of the intervention. A needs analysis questionnaire was initially conducted (n = 157) to scope workplace behaviours and attitudes. A development group (n = 11) was consulted in focus groups around the needs analysis findings and asked to comment on the feasibility of a proposed intervention. A pilot intervention was then carried out (n = 5). The needs analysis indicated that only 1.8% (n = 4) engaged in occupational physical activity, and 68.7% (n = 103) sat for ≥6 h during their working day. Through the focus groups, an intervention breaking up sitting time hourly with five-minute walking breaks was co-produced. Cultural and pragmatic issues concerning the implementation of frequent physical activity breaks from sitting and the subsequent impact on work productivity were highlighted. The pilot intervention increased the number of breaks from sedentary behaviour from 2 to 11. The co-production methodology resulted in a research- and stakeholder-guided compromise. Large-scale intervention implementation is required before firm effectiveness conclusions can be made.

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