benign prostatic hyperplasia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 350-356
Towhida Naheen

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or benign prostatic hypertrophy, is a histologic diagnosis status characterized by proliferation of the ‘glandular elements’ of the prostate, which may lead to an enlarged prostate gland. In many studies, people over the age of 40 years found as the most vulnerable for BPH. Ultrasonography is a prominent method to determine prostate volume or size. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prostate volume measurement for the Bangladeshi population over the age of 40 years by ultrasonography.Methods:This prospective, observational study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Chattogram Medical College Hospital, Chattogram, Bangladesh during the period from January 2019 to December 2020. In total 157 suspected patients of benign prostatic hyperplasia were selected as the study population. All patients were clinically diagnosed for BPH, based on the present prostate symptoms and digital rectal examination. To measure the prostate volume, abdominal ultrasonography was performed for all the patients. After enucleation, another ultrasonogram was performed for all the patients to measure the existing sizes of the prostates of the patients. All the data were processed, analyzed, and disseminated by MS-word and SPSS programs as per need.Results:Finally, in this study in analyzing the volumes of the prostates of the participants according to the abdominal ultra-sonographic reports of pre-operative stage we observed, in 9%, 34%, 31%, 30%, 21% and 32% patients, the prostate sizes (In cc) were <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100 and >100 cc respectively. On the other hand, after enucleation, in 11.46%, 24.20%, 28.66%, 27.39%, 7.01% and 1.27% patients, the prostate sizes (In cc) were found <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100 and >100 cc respectively. The mean changes of prostate sizes between pre- and post-operative stages among the participant was not significant where the P value was found 0.464.Conclusion:The findings of this study support the applications of abdominal ultrasonographic evaluation for suspected benign prostatic hyperplasia patients to know about the exact volumes of their prostates for selecting the appropriate surgical approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 897
Weronika Ratajczak ◽  
Michał Lubkowski ◽  
Anna Lubkowska

Two out of three diseases of the prostate gland affect aging men worldwide. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement affecting millions of men. Prostate cancer (PCa) in turn is the second leading cause of cancer death. The factors influencing the occurrence of BPH and PCa are different; however, in the course of these two diseases, the overexpression of heat shock proteins is observed. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), chaperone proteins, are known to be one of the main proteins playing a role in maintaining cell homeostasis. HSPs take part in the process of the proper folding of newly formed proteins, and participate in the renaturation of damaged proteins. In addition, they are involved in the transport of specific proteins to the appropriate cell organelles and directing damaged proteins to proteasomes or lysosomes. Their function is to protect the proteins against degradation factors that are produced during cellular stress. HSPs are also involved in modulating the immune response and the process of apoptosis. One well-known factor affecting HSPs is the androgen receptor (AR)—a main player involved in the development of BPH and the progression of prostate cancer. HSPs play a cytoprotective role and determine the survival of cancer cells. These chaperones are often upregulated in malignancies and play an indispensable role in tumor progression. Therefore, HSPs are considered as one of the therapeutic targets in anti-cancer therapies. In this review article, we discuss the role of different HSPs in prostate diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Luchen Yang ◽  
Zhenghuan Liu ◽  
Zhufeng Peng ◽  
Pan Song ◽  
Jing Zhou ◽  

30% of men suffer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) worldwide. As one of the most important members of Phthalate esters, previous studies suggested ubiquitous Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure is associated with such male disorders by interfering with endocrine system, however, little is known about the association between DEHP exposure and BPH. The objective of this study was to study the potential association by the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. The data was collected, and multiple logistic regression was adapted to measure the association. The concentrations of DEHP (∑DEHP) were calculated by each metabolite and split into quartiles for analysis. Results showed that the odds ratio (OR) decreased with increased ∑DEHP concentration. In the crude model, the OR for the second quartile (OR = 1.60, 95%CI [1.24, 2.07]) was obviously higher compared with the lowest quartile. However, the OR for the highest quartile (OR = 0.55, 95%CI [0.44,0.69]) was lower than that for the third quartile (OR = 0.77, 95%CI [0.61, 0.97]), and the OR for the third and the highest quartile were significantly lower than that of the lowest quartile, which suggested biphasic effects of DEHP based on concentration. The results showed the same trend after adjusting confounding factors. The study suggested that the DEHP exposure is associated with DEHP, and the results adds limited evidence to study this topic, however, further researches are needed to determine if the status of BPH can be changed by controlling DEHP exposure.

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Sirikan Rojanasarot ◽  
Benjamin Cutone ◽  
Samir Bhattacharyya ◽  
Kyle DeRouen ◽  
Larry E Miller

2022 ◽  
pp. 373-384
Magdalena Schrank ◽  
Stefano Romagnoli ◽  
Natali Krekeler

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-16
Mahmoud Tavakkoli ◽  
Hamidreza Ghorbani ◽  
Amin Nobahar ◽  
Maryam Emadzadeh ◽  

Background: We aimed to assess the efficacy of Intraprostatic Onabotulinumtoxin-A (BTA) on the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and other objective measures of patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: Fifteen patients were included in this study. The drug (BTA; 150 IU) was reconstituted in 20 mL of 0.9% saline before administration to the patients. After providing urethral anesthesia, 20 intraurethral injections were made to lateral lobes of the prostate, 10 injections in each lobe. Follow-up visits were planned 3 and 12 months after the intervention. Pre- and post-interventional IPSS, Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), Prostate Volume (PV), Post-Void Residue (PVR), and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) compared via paired t-test. Finally, we reviewed the Pubmed database to provide a more precise conclusion. Results: The Mean±SD age of patients was 69±8.24 years, and the mean IPSS score decreased significantly from 24.3±3.3 to 14.6±3.7 (p<0.001) and 16.86±3.06 (p<0.009) on the 3rd and 12th months, respectively. The Mean±SD PSA, PVR, Qmax, and PV were 3.26±1.38, 82.33±35.55, 8.56±1.76, and 47.86±8.93, respectively at baseline. These factors significantly improved to 2.72±1.33 (P<0.000), 71.33±30.55 (p<0.000), 9.5±1.33 (p<0.011), and 42.86± 6.04 (p<0.000), respectively, on the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: Although the overall results support the efficacy of BTA for BPH, the best route of administration, the most effective dose, the optimal number, and the volume of injections need further investigations. The probable placebo effect and underlying medical conditions (e.g., insulin resistance) should be considered as the confounding factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 193 ◽  
pp. 112979
Bangjian Dong ◽  
Chongzhi Sun ◽  
Mengyue Wang ◽  
Feng Liu ◽  
Xiaobo Li

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