Shenling Baizhu Powder (SBP), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formulation, has been widely used in the adjuvant treatment of cancers, including breast cancer. This study aims to identify potential new targets for breast cancer treatment based on the network pharmacology of SBP.
By analyzing the relationship between herbs and target proteins, potential targets of multiple herbs in SBP were identified by network pharmacology analysis. Besides, by comparing the data of breast cancer tissue with normal tissue, upregulated genes in two breast cancer expression profiles were found. Thereafter, the expression level and prognosis of activator of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) ATPase activity 1 (AHSA1) were further analyzed in breast cancer by bioinformatics analysis, and the network module of AHSA1 binding protein was constructed. Furthermore, the effect of knocking down AHSA1 on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells was verified by MTT, clone formation assay, and transwell assay.
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), AHSA1, and serpin family E member 1 (SERPINE1) were associated with multiple herbs in SBP. AHSA1 was remarkably upregulated in breast cancer tissues and positively correlated with poor overall survival and disease metastasis-free survival. Furthermore, knockdown of AHSA1 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but had no obvious effect on proliferation. In addition, among the proteins that bind to AHSAl, the network composed of proteasome, chaperonin, and heat shock proteins is closely connected, and these proteins are associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers.
AHSA1 is positively correlated with breast cancer progression and might act as a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer.
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an essential crop with high economic value. The growth of this plant is sensitive to environmental stress. Heat shock factor (Hsf) is a family of antiretroviral transcription factors that regulate plant defense system against biotic and abiotic stress. To date, few studies have identified and bio-analyzed Hsfs in common bean.
In this study, 30 Hsf transcription factors (PvHsf1–30) were identified from the PFAM database. The PvHsf1–30 belonged to 14 subfamilies with similar motifs, gene structure and cis-acting elements. The Hsf members in Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and common bean were classified into 14 subfamilies. Collinearity analysis showed that PvHsfs played a role in the regulation of responses to abiotic stress. The expression of PvHsfs varied across different tissues. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that most PvHsfs were differentially expressed under cold, heat, salt and heavy metal stress, indicating that PvHsfs might play different functions depending on the type of abiotic stress.
In this study, we identified 30 Hsf transcription factors and determined their location, motifs, gene structure, cis-elements, collinearity and expression patterns. It was found that PvHsfs regulates responses to abiotic stress in common bean. Thus, this study provides a basis for further analysis of the function of PvHsfs in the regulation of abiotic stress in common bean.
Sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) is an evergreen woody plant that emits a floral aroma and is widely used in the landscape and fragrance industries. However, its application and cultivation regions are limited by cold stress. Heat-shock transcription factor (HSF) family members are widely present in plants and participate in, and regulate, the defense processes of plants under various abiotic stress conditions, but now, the role of this family in the responses of O. fragrans to cold stress is still not clear. Here, 46 OfHSF members were identified in the O. fragrans genome and divided into three subfamilies on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis. The promoter regions of most OfHSFs contained many cis-acting elements involved in multiple hormonal and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data revealed that most of OfHSF genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, and some OfHSF members were induced by cold stress. The qRT-PCR analysis identified four OfHSFs that were induced by both cold and heat stresses, in which OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 had contrary expression trends under cold stress conditions and their expression patterns both showed recovery tendencies after the cold stress. OfHSF11 and OfHSF43 localized to the nuclei and their expression patterns were also induced under multiple abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments, indicating that they play critical roles in responses to multiple stresses. Furthermore, after a cold treatment, transient expression revealed that the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of OfHSF11-transformed tobacco significantly increased, and the expression levels of cold-response regulatory gene NbDREB3, cold response gene NbLEA5 and ROS detoxification gene NbCAT were significantly inhibited, implying that OfHSF11 is a negative regulator of cold responses in O. fragrans. Our study contributes to the further functional characterization of OfHSFs and will be useful in developing improved cold-tolerant cultivars of O. fragrans.
COVID-19 has become an ongoing issue in the present business world. The topic raises confusion and debate over many resolved issues. Not only the developing but also developed countries faced the heat-shock of this micro-infectious agent. But the power to regain and cope with the uncertainty has not been the same everywhere. To some extent, the developed nations have been able to tackle the bad days with their enriched resources, manpower and efficient system whereas this has become a total collapse for the developing and underdeveloped nations. Inefficiency and lack of social security have made life unbearable for the general people in these areas. What is the condition of the vaccination program? Whereas it is costly for the developed nations, it has simply become a dream for the developing nations. No one knows when the world will get a hundred per cent population with vaccination. In this paper we will cover these issues also we will take a look at the ravages of the pandemic in both worlds, as well as identifying the amalgamation of reasons behind the terrible second-wave in India and other developing nations.
Two out of three diseases of the prostate gland affect aging men worldwide. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement affecting millions of men. Prostate cancer (PCa) in turn is the second leading cause of cancer death. The factors influencing the occurrence of BPH and PCa are different; however, in the course of these two diseases, the overexpression of heat shock proteins is observed. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), chaperone proteins, are known to be one of the main proteins playing a role in maintaining cell homeostasis. HSPs take part in the process of the proper folding of newly formed proteins, and participate in the renaturation of damaged proteins. In addition, they are involved in the transport of specific proteins to the appropriate cell organelles and directing damaged proteins to proteasomes or lysosomes. Their function is to protect the proteins against degradation factors that are produced during cellular stress. HSPs are also involved in modulating the immune response and the process of apoptosis. One well-known factor affecting HSPs is the androgen receptor (AR)—a main player involved in the development of BPH and the progression of prostate cancer. HSPs play a cytoprotective role and determine the survival of cancer cells. These chaperones are often upregulated in malignancies and play an indispensable role in tumor progression. Therefore, HSPs are considered as one of the therapeutic targets in anti-cancer therapies. In this review article, we discuss the role of different HSPs in prostate diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets.
The microtubule-associated protein tau pathologically accumulates and aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies, leading to cognitive dysfunction and neuronal loss. Molecular chaperones, like small heat-shock proteins (sHsps), can help deter the accumulation of misfolded proteins, such as tau. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the overexpression of wild-type Hsp22 (wtHsp22) and its phosphomimetic (S24,57D) Hsp22 mutant (mtHsp22) could slow tau accumulation and preserve memory in a murine model of tauopathy, rTg4510. Our results show that Hsp22 protected against deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition in the tauopathic brain. However, we did not detect a significant change in tau phosphorylation or levels in these mice. This led us to hypothesize that the functional benefit was realized through the restoration of dysfunctional pathways in hippocampi of tau transgenic mice since no significant benefit was measured in non-transgenic mice expressing wtHsp22 or mtHsp22. To identify these pathways, we performed mass spectrometry of tissue lysates from the injection site. Overall, our data reveal that Hsp22 overexpression in neurons promotes synaptic plasticity by regulating canonical pathways and upstream regulators that have been characterized as potential AD markers and synaptogenesis regulators, like EIF4E and NFKBIA.
(1) Background: The aim of this dynamic-LC/MS-human-serum-proteomic-study was to identify potential proteins-candidates for biomarkers of acute ischemic stroke, their changes during acute phase of stroke and to define potential novel drug-targets. (2) Methods: A total of 32 patients (29–80 years) with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled to the study. The control group constituted 29 demographically-matched volunteers. Subjects with stroke presented clinical symptoms lasting no longer than 24 h, confirmed by neurological-examination and/or new cerebral ischemia visualized in the CT scans (computed tomography). The analysis of plasma proteome was performed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry). (3) Results: Ten proteins with significantly different serum concentrations between groups volunteers were: complement-factor-B, apolipoprotein-A-I, fibronectin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, heat-shock-cognate-71kDa protein/heat-shock-related-70kDa-protein-2, thymidine phosphorylase-2, cytoplasmic-tryptophan-tRNA-ligase, ficolin-2, beta-Ala-His-dipeptidase. (4) Conclusions: This is the first dynamic LC-MS study performed on a clinical model which differentiates serum proteome of patients in acute phase of ischemic stroke in time series and compares to control group. Listed proteins should be considered as risk factors, markers of ischemic stroke or potential therapeutic targets. Further clinical validation might define their exact role in differential diagnostics, monitoring the course of the ischemic stroke or specifying them as novel drug targets.