substantia nigra
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 24-28
Author(s):  
哲朗 石田 ◽  
Murayama Tomonori

An 88-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital for cognitive impairment and right-sided paralysis. His head non-contrast computed tomography (CT) showed large low-density areas (LDA) and fibrous structures in the left occipital and temporal lobe regions. Despite the fact that it had been more than 10 years since his stroke, rehabilitation was effective. This is a rare case in which cerebellar culmen -substantia nigra tract assisted rehabilitation after stroke.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Hyung Seo ◽  
Sujung Yeo

Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is known as the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is caused by destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) of the brain; however, the reason for the death of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. An increase in α-synuclein (α-syn) is considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of PD. In the current study, we investigated the association between PD and serine/arginine-rich protein specific kinase 3 (Srpk3) in MPTP-induced parkinsonism mice model and in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. Srpk3 expression was significantly downregulated, while tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) decreased and α-synuclein (α-syn) increased after 4 weeks of MPTP intoxication treatment. Dopaminergic cell reduction and α-syn increase were demonstrated by inhibiting Srpk3 expression by siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, a decrease in Srpk3 expression upon siRNA treatment promoted dopaminergic cell reduction and α-syn increase in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. These results suggest that the decrease in Srpk3 expression due to Srpk3 siRNA caused both a decrease in TH and an increase in α-syn. This raises new possibilities for studying how Srpk3 controls dopaminergic cells and α-syn expression, which may be related to the pathogenesis of PD. Our results provide an avenue for understanding the role of Srpk3 during dopaminergic cell loss and α-syn increase in the SN. Furthermore, this study could support a therapeutic possibility for PD in that the maintenance of Srpk3 expression inhibited dopaminergic cell reduction.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Meige Zheng ◽  
Yanchang Liu ◽  
Zhaoming Xiao ◽  
Luyan Jiao ◽  
Xian Lin

The loss of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNR) was observed in patients with end-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD) and our previously constructed old-aged Pitx3-A53Tα-Syn × Tau–/– triple transgenic mice model of PD. The aim of this study was to examine the progress of PV+ neurons loss. We demonstrated that, as compared with non-transgenic (nTg) mice, the accumulation of α-synuclein in the SNR of aged Pitx3-A53Tα-Syn × Tau–/– mice was increased obviously, which was accompanied by the considerable degeneration of PV+ neurons and the massive generation of apoptotic NeuN+TUNEL+ co-staining neurons. Interestingly, PV was not costained with TUNEL, a marker of apoptosis. PV+ neurons in the SNR may undergo a transitional stage from decreased expression of PV to increased expression of NeuN and then to TUNEL expression. In addition, the degeneration of PV+ neurons and the expression of NeuN were rarely observed in the SNR of nTg and the other triple transgenic mice. Hence, we propose that Tau knockout and α-syn A53T synergy modulate PV+ neurons degeneration staging in the SNR of aged PD-liked mice model, and NeuN may be suited for an indicator that suggests degeneration of SNR PV+ neurons. However, the molecular mechanism needs to be further investigated.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262464
Author(s):  
Roger Pamphlett ◽  
David P. Bishop

Objective Environmental toxicants are suspected to play a part in the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may underlie its increasing incidence. Mercury exposure in humans is common and is increasing due to accelerating levels of atmospheric mercury, and mercury damages cells via oxidative stress, cell membrane damage, and autoimmunity, mechanisms suspected in the pathogenesis of PD. We therefore compared the cellular distribution of mercury in the tissues of people with and without PD who had evidence of previous mercury exposure by mercury being present in their locus ceruleus neurons. Materials and methods Paraffin sections from the brain and general organs of two people with PD, two people without PD with a history of mercury exposure, and ten people without PD or known mercury exposure, were stained for inorganic mercury using autometallography, combined with immunostaining for a-synuclein and glial cells. All had mercury-containing neurons in locus ceruleus neurons. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to confirm the presence of mercury and to look for other potentially toxic elements. Autometallography-stained locus ceruleus paraffin sections were examined to compare the frequency of previous mercury exposure between 20 PD and 40 non-PD individuals. Results In PD brains, autometallography-detected mercury was seen in neurons affected by the disease, such as those in the substantia nigra, motor cortex, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Mercury was seen in oligodendrocytes in white and grey matter. Mercury often co-localised with Lewy bodies and neurites. A more restricted distribution of brain mercury was seen in people without PD (both with or without known mercury exposure), with no mercury present in the substantia nigra, striatum, or thalamus. The presence of autometallography-detected mercury in PD was confirmed with LA-ICP-MS, which demonstrated other potentially toxic metals in the locus ceruleus and high iron levels in white matter. Autometallography-detected mercury was found in locus ceruleus neurons in a similar proportion of PD (65%) and non-PD (63%) individuals. Conclusions In people with PD, mercury was found in neurons and oligodendrocytes in regions of the brain that are affected by the disease, and often co-localised with aggregated a-synuclein. Mercury in the motor cortex, thalamus and striatum could result in bradykinesia and rigidity, and mercury in the cerebellum could cause tremor. People without PD had a restricted uptake of mercury into the brain. The similar frequency of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people with and without PD suggests these two groups have had comparable previous mercury exposures but that PD brains have a greater predisposition to take up circulating mercury. While this post mortem study does not provide a direct link between mercury and idiopathic PD, it adds to the body of evidence that metal toxicants such as mercury play a role in the disease. A precautionary approach would be to reduce rising mercury levels in the atmosphere by limiting the burning of fossil fuels, which may be contributing to the increasing incidence of PD.


Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 198
Author(s):  
Federico Ferraro ◽  
Christina Fevga ◽  
Vincenzo Bonifati ◽  
Wim Mandemakers ◽  
Ahmed Mahfouz ◽  
...  

Several studies have analyzed gene expression profiles in the substantia nigra to better understand the pathological mechanisms causing Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the concordance between the identified gene signatures in these individual studies was generally low. This might have been caused by a change in cell type composition as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is a hallmark of PD. Through an extensive meta-analysis of nine previously published microarray studies, we demonstrated that a big proportion of the detected differentially expressed genes was indeed caused by cyto-architectural alterations due to the heterogeneity in the neurodegenerative stage and/or technical artefacts. After correcting for cell composition, we identified a common signature that deregulated the previously unreported ammonium transport, as well as known biological processes such as bioenergetic pathways, response to proteotoxic stress, and immune response. By integrating with protein interaction data, we shortlisted a set of key genes, such as LRRK2, PINK1, PRKN, and FBXO7, known to be related to PD, others with compelling evidence for their role in neurodegeneration, such as GSK3β, WWOX, and VPC, and novel potential players in the PD pathogenesis. Together, these data show the importance of accounting for cyto-architecture in these analyses and highlight the contribution of multiple cell types and novel processes to PD pathology, providing potential new targets for drug development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 537
Author(s):  
Zulzikry Hafiz Abu Bakar ◽  
Jean-Pierre Bellier ◽  
Daijiro Yanagisawa ◽  
Tomoko Kato ◽  
Ken-ichi Mukaisho ◽  
...  

Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt) is a mitochondrial iron storage protein associated with neurodegenerative diseases. In patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), FtMt was shown to accumulate in nigral neurons. Here, we investigated FtMt and LC3 in the post-mortem midbrain of PSP patients to reveal novel aspects of the pathology. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the distribution and abnormal changes in FtMt and LC3 immunoreactivities. Colocalization analysis using double immunofluorescence was performed, and subcellular patterns were examined using 3D imaging and modeling. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), strong FtMt-IR and LC3-IR were observed in the neurons of PSP patients. In other midbrain regions, such as the superior colliculus, the FtMt-IR and LC3-IR remained unchanged. In the SNc, nigral neurons were categorized into four patterns based on subcellular LC3/FtMt immunofluorescence intensities, degree of colocalization, and subcellular overlapping. This categorization suggested that concomitant accumulation of LC3/FtMt is related to mitophagy processes. Using the LC3-IR to stage neuronal damage, we retraced LC3/FtMt patterns and revealed the progression of FtMt accumulation in nigral neurons. Informed by these findings, we proposed a hypothesis to explain the function of FtMt during PSP progression.


Author(s):  
Robert Ledeen ◽  
Suman Chowdhury ◽  
Zi-Hua Lu ◽  
Monami Chakraborty ◽  
Gusheng Wu

AbstractFollowing our initial reports on subnormal levels of GM1 in the substantia nigra and occipital cortex of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, we have examined additional tissues from such patients and found these are also deficient in the ganglioside. These include innervated tissues intimately involved in PD pathology such as colon, heart and others, somewhat less intimately involved, such as skin and fibroblasts. Finally, we have analyzed GM1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a type of tissue apparently with no direct innervation, and found those too to be deficient in GM1. Those patients were all afflicted with the sporadic form of PD (sPD), and we therefore conclude that systemic deficiency of GM1 is a characteristic of this major type of PD. Age is one factor in GM1 decline but is not sufficient; additional GM1 suppressive factors are involved in producing sPD. We discuss these and why GM1 replacement offers promise as a disease-altering therapy.


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