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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1028-1033
Liangbang Wu ◽  
Zhenhai Hou ◽  
Longbao Zheng ◽  
Zenghui Gu

This study analyzed the action of Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on arthritis rat model. Arthritis rat model was established using bovine type II collagen and CFA. BMSCs phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry and pathological changes was analyzed by H&E staining along with analysis of joint severity by AI score, inflammation by ELISA as well as level of NPY, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The form of passaged BMSCs was spindle shaped with positive expression of CD29 and CD44. The structure of articular cavity in arthritis rats was disordered with infiltration of inflammatory cells which were ameliorated by BMSCs transplantation. In addition, BMSCs treatment also significantly reduced AI value, the level of VEGF, IL-17 and TNF-α as well as decreased RANK/RANKL expression and increased OPG level. In conclusion, BMSCs transplantation ameliorates inflammation and severity in arthritis rats possibly through regulation of RANK/OPG, indicating that it might be used for the treatment of arthritis patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Zhenchuan Liu ◽  
Chenglai Dong ◽  
Wenli Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Neointimal hyperplasia induced by interventional surgery can lead to progressive obliteration of the vascular lumen, which has become a major factor affecting prognosis. The rate of re-endothelialization is known to be inversely related to neointima formation. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted protein with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiaging properties. Recent reports have indicated that GDF11 can improve vascular remodeling by maintaining the differentiated phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, it is not known whether and how GDF11 promotes re-endothelialization in vascular injury. The present study was performed to clarify the influence of GDF11 on re-endothelialization after vascular injury. Methods An adult Sprague–Dawley rat model of common carotid artery balloon dilatation injury was surgically established. A recombinant adenovirus carrying GDF11 was delivered into the common carotid artery to overexpress GDF11. Vascular re-endothelialization and neointima formation were assessed in harvested carotid arteries through histomolecular analysis. CCK-8 analysis, LDH release and Western blotting were performed to investigate the effects of GDF11 on endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and relevant signaling pathways in vitro. Results GDF11 significantly enhanced re-endothelialization and reduced neointima formation in rats with balloon-dilatation injury by suppressing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Administration of an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) inhibitor, 4PBA, attenuated endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by lysophosphatidylcholine. In addition, upregulation of LOX-1 expression involved elevated ER stress and could result in endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, GDF11 significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated endothelial cell pyroptosis by negatively regulating LOX-1-dependent ER stress. Conclusions We conclude that GDF11 improves re-endothelialization and can attenuate vascular remodeling by reducing endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings shed light on new treatment strategies to promote re-endothelialization based on GDF11 as a future target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Dashuai Zhu ◽  
Zhenhua Li ◽  
Zhenzhen Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Osteoporosis is a chronic condition affecting patients’ morbidity and mortality and represents a big socioeconomic burden. Because stem cells can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells, stem cell therapy for osteoporosis has been widely studied. However, cells as a live drug face multiple challenges because of their instability during preservation and transportation. In addition, cell therapy has potential adverse effects such as embolism, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity. Results Herein, we sought to use cell-mimicking and targeted therapeutic nanoparticles to replace stem cells. We fabricated nanoparticles (NPs) using polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) loaded with the secretome (Sec) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form MSC-Sec NPs. Furthermore, we cloaked the nanoparticles with the membranes from C–X–C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-expressing human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) to generate MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NP. CXCR4 can target the nanoparticles to the bone microenvironment under osteoporosis based on the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis. Conclusions In a rat model of osteoporosis, MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NP were found to accumulate in bone, and such treatment inhibited osteoclast differentiation while promoting osteogenic proliferation. In addition, our results showed that MSC-Sec/CXCR4 NPs reduce OVX-induced bone mass attenuation in OVX rats. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saad Mohamed Asseri ◽  
Nehal M. Elsherbiny ◽  
Mohamed El-Sherbiny ◽  
Iman O. Sherif ◽  
Alsamman M. Alsamman ◽  

AbstractThe burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated complications is increasing worldwide, affecting many organ functionalities including submandibular glands (SMG). The present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on diabetes-induced SMG damage. Experimental evaluation of GA treatment was conducted on a rat model of type I diabetes. Animals were assigned to three groups; control, diabetic and GA treated diabetic groups. After 8 weeks, the SMG was processed for assessment of oxidative stress markers, autophagy related proteins; LC3, Beclin-1 and P62, vascular regulator ET-1, aquaporins (AQPs 1.4 and 5), SIRT1 protein expressions in addition to LC3 and AQP5 mRNA expressions. Also, parenchymal structures of the SMG were examined. GA alleviated the diabetes-induced SMG damage via restoring the SMG levels of oxidative stress markers and ET-1 almost near to the normal levels most probably via regulation of SIRT1, AQPs and accordingly LC-3, P62 and Beclin-1levels. GA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes-induced SMG damage via regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and angiogenesis.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0257929
Maria Francesca Evaristi ◽  
Bruno Poirier ◽  
Xavier Chénedé ◽  
Anne-Marie Lefebvre ◽  
Alain Roccon ◽  

Aim Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major cause of death worldwide with no approved treatment. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction represent the structural and functional components of HFpEF, respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is prevalent in HFpEF and predicts cardiovascular events. We investigated if SAR247799, a G-protein-biased sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist with endothelial-protective properties, could improve cardiac and renal functions in a rat model of metabolic syndrome LVH and diastolic function. Methods 31- and 65-week-old obese ZSF1 (Ob-ZSF1) rats, representing adult and aged animals with LVH and diastolic dysfunction, were randomized to a chow diet containing 0.025% (w/w) of SAR247799, or control (CTRL) chow for 4 weeks. Age-matched lean ZSF1 (Le-ZSF1) rats were fed control chow. Echocardiography, telemetry, biochemical and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of SAR247799. Results Echocardiography revealed that Ob-ZSF1 rats, in contrast to Le-ZSF1 rats, developed progressive diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy with age. SAR247799 blunted the progression of diastolic dysfunction in adult and aged animals: in adult animals E/e’ was evaluated at 21.8 ± 1.4 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 1.2 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 19.5 ± 2.3 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL (median ± IQR). In aged animals E/e’ was evaluated at 23.15 ± 4.45 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 5 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 16.69 ± 1.7 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, p<0.01 (median ± IQR). In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced cardiac hypertrophy (g/mm mean ± SEM of heart weight/tibia length 0.053 ± 0.001 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs 0.046 ± 0.002 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, Le-ZSF1-CTRL 0.035 ± 0.001) and myocardial perivascular collagen content (p<0.001), independently of any changes in microvascular density. In adult animals, SAR247799 improved endothelial function as assessed by the very low frequency bands of systolic blood pressure variability (mean ± SEM 67.8 ± 3.41 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL 55.8 ± 4.27 or Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, p<0.05 and 57.3 ± 1.82 Le-ZSF1-CTRL), independently of any modification of arterial blood pressure. In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced urinary protein/creatinine ratio, an index of glomerular injury, (10.3 ± 0.621 vs 8.17 ± 0.231 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, respectively, p<0.05 and 0.294 ± 0.029 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, mean ± SEM) and the fractional excretion of electrolytes. Circulating lymphocytes were not decreased by SAR247799, confirming lack of S1P1 desensitization. Conclusions These experimental findings suggest that S1P1 activation with SAR247799 may be considered as a new therapeutic approach for LVH and diastolic dysfunction, major components of HFpEF.

Guilherme Aparecido Monteiro Duque da Fonseca ◽  
Marcos Fernando Xisto Braga Cavalcanti ◽  
José Daniel de Souza Maior ◽  
Juliana da Silva Pereira ◽  
Leandro augusto Pinto ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 859
Ihsan Hammoura ◽  
Renee H. Fiechter ◽  
Shaughn H. Bryant ◽  
Susan Westmoreland ◽  
Gillian Kingsbury ◽  

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-23/IL-17 axes are the main therapeutic targets in spondyloarthritis. Despite the clinical efficacy of blocking either pathway, monotherapy does not induce remission in all patients and its effect on new bone formation remains unclear. We aimed to study the effect of TNF and IL-17A dual inhibition on clinical disease and structural damage using the HLA-B27/human β2-microglobulin transgenic rat model of SpA. Immunized rats were randomized according to arthritis severity, 1 week after arthritis incidence reached 50%, to be treated twice weekly for a period of 5 weeks with either a dual blockade therapy of an anti-TNF antibody and an anti-IL-17A antibody, a single therapy of either antibody, or PBS as vehicle control. Treatment-blinded observers assessed inflammation and structural damage clinically, histologically and by micro-CT imaging. Both single therapies as well as TNF and IL-17A dual blockade therapy reduced clinical spondylitis and peripheral arthritis effectively and similarly. Clinical improvement was confirmed for all treatments by a reduction of histological inflammation and pannus formation (p < 0.05) at the caudal spine. All treatments showed an improvement of structural changes at the axial and peripheral joints on micro-CT imaging, with a significant decrease for roughness (p < 0.05), which reflects both erosion and new bone formation, at the level of the caudal spine. The effect of dual blockade therapy on new bone formation was more prominent at the axial than the peripheral level. Collectively, our study showed that dual blockade therapy significantly reduces inflammation and structural changes, including new bone formation. However, we could not confirm a more pronounced effect of dual inhibition compared to single inhibition.

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