This study analyzed the action of Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on arthritis rat model. Arthritis rat model was established using bovine type II collagen and CFA. BMSCs phenotype was assessed by flow cytometry and pathological changes was analyzed by H&E
staining along with analysis of joint severity by AI score, inflammation by ELISA as well as level of NPY, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The form of passaged BMSCs was spindle shaped with positive expression of CD29 and CD44. The structure of articular cavity in arthritis rats was disordered with infiltration
of inflammatory cells which were ameliorated by BMSCs transplantation. In addition, BMSCs treatment also significantly reduced AI value, the level of VEGF, IL-17 and TNF-α as well as decreased RANK/RANKL expression and increased OPG level. In conclusion, BMSCs transplantation
ameliorates inflammation and severity in arthritis rats possibly through regulation of RANK/OPG, indicating that it might be used for the treatment of arthritis patients.
AbstractThe burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated complications is increasing worldwide, affecting many organ functionalities including submandibular glands (SMG). The present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on diabetes-induced SMG damage. Experimental evaluation of GA treatment was conducted on a rat model of type I diabetes. Animals were assigned to three groups; control, diabetic and GA treated diabetic groups. After 8 weeks, the SMG was processed for assessment of oxidative stress markers, autophagy related proteins; LC3, Beclin-1 and P62, vascular regulator ET-1, aquaporins (AQPs 1.4 and 5), SIRT1 protein expressions in addition to LC3 and AQP5 mRNA expressions. Also, parenchymal structures of the SMG were examined. GA alleviated the diabetes-induced SMG damage via restoring the SMG levels of oxidative stress markers and ET-1 almost near to the normal levels most probably via regulation of SIRT1, AQPs and accordingly LC-3, P62 and Beclin-1levels. GA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes-induced SMG damage via regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and angiogenesis.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major cause of death worldwide with no approved treatment. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction represent the structural and functional components of HFpEF, respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is prevalent in HFpEF and predicts cardiovascular events. We investigated if SAR247799, a G-protein-biased sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) agonist with endothelial-protective properties, could improve cardiac and renal functions in a rat model of metabolic syndrome LVH and diastolic function.
31- and 65-week-old obese ZSF1 (Ob-ZSF1) rats, representing adult and aged animals with LVH and diastolic dysfunction, were randomized to a chow diet containing 0.025% (w/w) of SAR247799, or control (CTRL) chow for 4 weeks. Age-matched lean ZSF1 (Le-ZSF1) rats were fed control chow. Echocardiography, telemetry, biochemical and histological analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of SAR247799.
Echocardiography revealed that Ob-ZSF1 rats, in contrast to Le-ZSF1 rats, developed progressive diastolic dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy with age. SAR247799 blunted the progression of diastolic dysfunction in adult and aged animals: in adult animals E/e’ was evaluated at 21.8 ± 1.4 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 1.2 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 19.5 ± 2.3 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL (median ± IQR). In aged animals E/e’ was evaluated at 23.15 ± 4.45 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL, 19.5 ± 5 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, and 16.69 ± 1.7 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, p<0.01 (median ± IQR). In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced cardiac hypertrophy (g/mm mean ± SEM of heart weight/tibia length 0.053 ± 0.001 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs 0.046 ± 0.002 for Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799 p<0.01, Le-ZSF1-CTRL 0.035 ± 0.001) and myocardial perivascular collagen content (p<0.001), independently of any changes in microvascular density. In adult animals, SAR247799 improved endothelial function as assessed by the very low frequency bands of systolic blood pressure variability (mean ± SEM 67.8 ± 3.41 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL 55.8 ± 4.27 or Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, p<0.05 and 57.3 ± 1.82 Le-ZSF1-CTRL), independently of any modification of arterial blood pressure. In aged animals, SAR247799 reduced urinary protein/creatinine ratio, an index of glomerular injury, (10.3 ± 0.621 vs 8.17 ± 0.231 for Ob-ZSF1-CTRL vs Ob-ZSF1-SAR247799, respectively, p<0.05 and 0.294 ± 0.029 for Le-ZSF1-CTRL, mean ± SEM) and the fractional excretion of electrolytes. Circulating lymphocytes were not decreased by SAR247799, confirming lack of S1P1 desensitization.
These experimental findings suggest that S1P1 activation with SAR247799 may be considered as a new therapeutic approach for LVH and diastolic dysfunction, major components of HFpEF.