dynamic uncertainties
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2021 ◽  
Arjan Matheus Kamp ◽  
Amna Khalid Alhosani ◽  
David Dong II Kim ◽  
Sophie Verdière ◽  
Hamdy Helmy Mohamed

Abstract As part of a reservoir modelling study for an onshore oil field in the Middle East, our study implemented a workflow with the objective to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on the long-term development scenario. The presence of several geological uncertainties characterized the field: many faults with uncertainty in juxtaposition and conductivity, lateral distribution of permeability in high permeability layers, and uncertainty on the rock typing. A deterministic geological model was available. There were also many dynamic uncertainties. The workflow started with an identification of uncertain variables, both from the static and the dynamic point of view, through an integrated team approach supported by a previous reservoir synthesis (Major Field Review). Subsequently, a screening analysis allowed identifying the relative impact of uncertain variables. After selecting the uncertainties with the largest impact on recovery, use of an experimental design methodology with a space-filling design resulted in alternative history matches. Statistical analysis of forecasts yielded probability density functions and low and high estimates of ultimate recovery. Forty-five uncertain variables, including both static and dynamic uncertainties, characterized the production profiles. Screening allowed reducing these to 11 main uncertain variables. A Wootton, Sergent, Phan-Tan-Luu (WSP) space-filling design yielded 162 simulation runs. Only five out of these corresponded to acceptable history matches. This number being statistically insignificant, a reexamination of the uncertainty ranges followed by a narrowing, allowed obtaining 45 history matches (out of 198 runs). The obtained spread in the cumulative oil production was narrow, with a slightly skewed distribution around the base case (closer to P90 than to P10). The study resulted in an estimation of final uncertainty in reserves that is smaller than the typical uncertainty found in post-mortem analysis of oil field development projects. Other reservoir studies in the company and in literature, employing a similar workflow, yielded outcomes with a similar bias. To tackle this issue, as a way forward we suggest history matching of multiple geological scenarios, either with multiple deterministic cases (min, base, max) or with an ensemble history matching loop including structural model generation, in-filling, and dynamic parameter uncertainty.

Complexity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Erxin Gao ◽  
Xin Ning ◽  
Zheng Wang ◽  
Xiaokui Yue

This paper investigates the antidisturbance formation control problem for a class of cluster aerospace unmanned systems (CAUSs) suffering from multisource high-dynamic uncertainties. Firstly, to estimate and compensate the uncertainties existing in CAUS coordinate dynamics, an adaptive antidisturbance formation control law, which is combined by a robust adaptive control law and the second order disturbance observer, has been designed. Secondly, aiming at the adverse influences caused by the nonlinear time-varying nonlinearities existing in the formation flight dynamics, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is introduced. Furthermore, considering the rapidly varying characteristics of the aforementioned formation flight nonlinearities, a novel board RBFNN (B-RBFNN) has been constructed and utilized to improve the approximation and compensation performance. In virtue of the fusing of the B-RBFNN and the second-order disturbance observer-based adaptive formation control law, the rapid response rate and the higher control accuracy of the formation control system can be achieved. As a result, a novel B-RBFNN-based intelligence adaptive antidisturbance formation control algorithm has been established for CAUS trajectory coordination and formation flight. Numerical simulation results are proposed to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed B-RBFNN-based intelligent adaptive formation control method for the CAUS.

2021 ◽  
Seyed Kourosh Mahjour ◽  
Antonio Alberto Souza Santos ◽  
Susana Margarida da Graca Santos ◽  
Denis Jose Schiozer

Abstract In greenfield projects, robust well placement optimization under different scenarios of uncertainty technically requires hundreds to thousands of evaluations to be processed by a flow simulator. However, the simulation process for so many evaluations can be computationally expensive. Hence, simulation runs are generally applied over a small subset of scenarios called representative scenarios (RS) approximately showing the statistical features of the full ensemble. In this work, we evaluated two workflows for robust well placement optimization using the selection of (1) representative geostatistical realizations (RGR) under geological uncertainties (Workflow A), and (2) representative (simulation) models (RM) under the combination of geological and reservoir (dynamic) uncertainties (Workflow B). In both workflows, an existing RS selection technique was used by measuring the mismatches between the cumulative distribution of multiple simulation outputs from the subset and the full ensemble. We applied the Iterative Discretized Latin Hypercube (IDLHC) to optimize the well placements using the RS sets selected from each workflow and maximizing the expected monetary value (EMV) as the objective function. We evaluated the workflows in terms of (1) representativeness of the RS in different production strategies, (2) quality of the defined robust strategies, and (3) computational costs. To obtain and validate the results, we employed the synthetic UNISIM-II-D-BO benchmark case with uncertain variables and the reference fine- grid model, UNISIM-II-R, which works as a real case. This work investigated the overall impacts of the robust well placement optimization workflows considering uncertain scenarios and application on the reference model. Additionally, we highlighted and evaluated the importance of geological and dynamic uncertainties in the RS selection for efficient robust well placement optimization.

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