Previous physical activity guidelines from health organizations provide general physical activity and exercise intensity and duration recommendations. These guidelines have experienced very little change over the last two decades, despite significant changes in technology, more specifically wearable technology. The guidelines typical refer to exercise intensity as low, moderate and vigorous intensity based on a metabolic equivalent scale (MET) or a subjective scale. With wearable technology being accessible, affordable, reliable, and accurate, more attention should be given address recommendations that are multifaceted and specific. Most wearable technology can easily track sleep, steps, calories, hear rate, and exercise time within certain heart rate training zones. Research has shown that monitoring exercise and physical activity with wearable technology can improve health outcomes3.
ObjectivesThis study used a mixed-method approach to explore cultural and ethnic influences on the perception of, and decision to engage with or not to engage with, physical activity and exercise therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).DesignQualitative research was conducted through the use of semistructured interviews and focus groups. Self-reported physical activity levels were measured using the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), and self-efficacy for exercise with Bandura’s Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale.SettingThis study was conducted in a non-clinical setting of a single National Health Service Hospital Trust between April 2018 and July 2019.ParticipantsParticipants >18 years of age with a diagnosis of CKD, from black African, black Caribbean, South Asian or white ethnicity were eligible for the study. 84 patients with a diagnosis of CKD (stages 2–5), aged 25–79 (mean age 57) were recruited. Semistructured interviews (n=20) and six single-sex, ethnic-specific focus group discussions were undertaken (n=36).OutcomesPrimary outcome was to explore the perceptions, attitudes and values about exercise and physical activity in different ethnic groups through qualitative interviews, analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Questionnaires were analysed using Pearson correlation to determine if there was a significant relationship between the self-efficacy and GPPAQ levels.ResultsQualitative analysis provided four primary themes: I am who I am, Change of identity, Influences to physical activity and exercise and Support and education. Quantitative analysis using Pearson correlation revealed a significant correlation between GPPAQ levels of activity and self-efficacy to regulate exercise behaviour (r=−0.40, p=0.001).ConclusionUnderstanding the cultural, attitudes and beliefs of individuals with CKD from a variety of ethnic backgrounds is complex. Understanding of patients’ experiences, thoughts and beliefs may be of relevance to clinicians when designing CKD exercise services.Trial registration numberNCT03709212; Pre-results.