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Martin Færch Andersen ◽  
Julie Midtgaard ◽  
Eik Dybboe Bjerre

Men diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer experience severe adverse effects on quality of life (QoL) and metabolic health, some of which may be preventable or reversible with exercise, the benefits of which healthcare providers and patients increasingly acknowledge, though existing evidence on its effects varies in significance and magnitude. We aimed to review the effect of exercise on QoL and metabolic health in a broad prostate cancer population. A systematic search was conducted in nine databases and eligible trials were included in the meta-analytic procedure. All outcomes were stratified into aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and a combination of both. The review identified 33 randomised controlled trials (2567 participants) eligible for inclusion. Exercise had a borderline small positive effect on cancer-specific QoL (standardised mean difference (SMD) = 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.01–0.22), and a moderate to large effect on cardiovascular fitness (SMD = 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.59) with aerobic exercise being the superior modality (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.29–0.90). A positive significant effect was seen in lower body strength, whole-body fat mass, general mental health, and blood pressure. No significant effect was seen in fatigue, lean body mass, and general physical health. We thereby conclude that exercise is effective in improving metabolic health in men diagnosed with prostate cancer, with aerobic exercise as the superior modality. The effect of exercise on QoL was small and not mediated by choice of exercise modality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 273-285
Jera Gregorc ◽  
Alenka Humar

<p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this paper is to determine the relevance of turning the camera on or off during distance learning as an argument for active or passive student participation. Seventy-five (75) students participated in the study and were divided into five groups (1-5) according to teaching method (i.e., synchronous instruction online with camera (1) and without camera (2), synchronous transmission of the recording online with camera (3) and without camera (4) and received the online instruction (5)) only. In the beginning and at the end, all students were tested with the same adapted test to determine general physical and motor status. All groups had the same training program twice a week for 45 minutes for 7 weeks. The first training of the week was dedicated to strength development, the second to endurance. In the end, all participants completed a questionnaire to determine their additional physical activity and how they felt about using a camera. The camera being turned on was identified as a factor that made participants uncomfortable but contributed significantly to the effectiveness of the course. However, 94.6 % of all participants cited non-camera methods as their favourite.</p>

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 163
Karl Hess

This review is related to the Einstein-Bohr debate and to Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen’s (EPR) and Bohm’s (EPRB) Gedanken-experiments as well as their realization in actual experiments. I examine a significant number of papers, from my minority point of view and conclude that the well-known theorems of Bell and Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) deal with mathematical abstractions that have only a tenuous relation to quantum theory and the actual EPRB experiments. It is also shown that, therefore, Bell-CHSH cannot be used to assess the nature of quantum entanglement, nor can physical features of entanglement be used to prove Bell-CHSH. Their proofs are, among other factors, based on a statistical sampling argument that is invalid for general physical entities and processes and only applicable for finite “populations”; not for elements of physical reality that are linked, for example, to a time-like continuum. Bell-CHSH have, furthermore, neglected the subtleties of the theorem of Vorob’ev that includes their theorems as special cases. Vorob’ev found that certain combinatorial-topological cyclicities of classical random variables form a necessary and sufficient condition for the constraints that are now known as Bell-CHSH inequalities. These constraints, however, must not be linked to the observables of quantum theory nor to the actual EPRB experiments for a variety of reasons, including the existence of continuum-related variables and appropriate considerations of symmetry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Gabriel Sanders

Previous physical activity guidelines from health organizations provide general physical activity and exercise intensity and duration recommendations. These guidelines have experienced very little change over the last two decades, despite significant changes in technology, more specifically wearable technology. The guidelines typical refer to exercise intensity as low, moderate and vigorous intensity based on a metabolic equivalent scale (MET) or a subjective scale. With wearable technology being accessible, affordable, reliable, and accurate, more attention should be given address recommendations that are multifaceted and specific. Most wearable technology can easily track sleep, steps, calories, hear rate, and exercise time within certain heart rate training zones. Research has shown that monitoring exercise and physical activity with wearable technology can improve health outcomes3.


The most significant aspect of a drug's physicochemical nature is its solubility. If the medicine is in a dissolved form, it can dissolve and enter the membrane, resulting in a therapeutic effect. The pharmacokinetic phase of the drug in the body, which includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, will be correlated with solubility. Some medications, however, have a low solubility. To obtain a therapeutic impact, an effort must be made to increase the drug's solubility. Based on the literature research, the goal of this paper is to explain approaches that can be utilized to improve solubility. In general, physical, chemical, and micelle formation efforts can all be used it to enhance solubility. Particle size reduction, crystal shape modification, and the utilization of matrices in the disperse phase are examples of physical alterations. pH adjustment, buffering, salt formation, complexation, and derivatization all are examples of chemical alterations. The employment of supercritical processes in solutions and also excipients such as surfactants, cosolvents, stabilizing solutions, and others are examples of how micelle formation can be modified.

Alejandro Manito Quintero ◽  
Yaira Barranco Ruiz

The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a virtually supervised fitness program on physical fitness and perceived stress in university teachers during lockdown due to COVID-19. A total of 15 university teachers participated in a virtual fitness program based on new fitness trends (4-weeks / 2-days / week / 45-minutes / session) during COVID-19 lockdown. Perceived physical fitness using the International-Fitness-Scale (IFiS) and perceived stress using the Perceived-Stress-Questionnaire (PSQ-30) were evaluated pre and post intervention. The virtual fitness program significantly improved the perception of general physical fitness (p = 0.011) and muscle strength (p = 0.024), and generated a significant decrease in the perception of stress (p <0.001). A virtually supervised fitness program based on the “whole-body HIIT” fitness trend could be an effective strategy to ensure healthy levels of physical fitness and stress in university teachers during confinement situations. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de un programa de acondicionamiento físico supervisado virtualmente sobre la condición física y el estrés percibido en docentes universitarios durante la situación de confinamiento por COVID-19. Un total de 15 docentes universitarios participaron un programa de acondicionamiento físico virtual basado en nuevas tendencias fitness (4-semanas/2-días/semana/45-minutos/sesión) durante el confinamiento por COVID-19. La condición física percibida mediante la International-Fitness-Scale (IFiS) y el estrés percibido mediante el Perceived-Stress-Questionnaire (PSQ-30) fueron evaluados pre y post intervención. El programa de acondicionamiento físico virtual mejoró significativamente la percepción de la condición física general (p=0,011) y de la fuerza muscular (p=0,024), y generó una disminución significativa de la percepción de estrés (p<0.001). Un programa de acondicionamiento físico supervisado virtualmente basado en la tendencia fitness “HIIT whole-body” podría ser una estrategia eficaz para garantizar niveles saludables de condición física y estrés en docentes universitarios durante situaciones de confinamiento.

2022 ◽  
pp. 172-190
Scott Mcnamara ◽  
Cheng-Chen Pan

Adapted physical education (APE) services have the same overall objectives as general physical education; however, adapted physical educators should implement accommodations and modifications to personalize the programs to meet the individual needs of students with disabilities. Because of the high levels of health disparity for people with disabilities, as well as cognitive and socio-emotional benefits associated with physical activity and exercise, it is crucial that students with disabilities receive high-quality APE programming. To give the readers a broad overview of APE and how it should be implemented, this chapter covers the following topics: physical education and physical literacy, the benefits of physical education and exercise for students with disabilities, federal laws in relation to physical education for students with disabilities, the role of adapted physical educators in interdisciplinary team approaches within the individualized education program process, and highlighting specialized teaching strategies and specialized equipment for students with disabilities.

Folia Medica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 63 (6) ◽  
pp. 919-927
Dimitrios Kechagias ◽  
Christos Chatzipapas ◽  
Makrina Karaglani ◽  
Konstantinos Tilkeridis ◽  
Athanasios Ververidis ◽  

Introduction: Determining the effect of body composition on chronic low back pain seems to have the potential to improve our understanding of its mechanism and to develop novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.&nbsp; Aim: The purpose of the present study was to assess by electrical impedance the composition of lower extremities of individuals with chronic low back pain. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-one adult participants with diagnosed chronic low back pain were recruited in this study. The study activities were divided into three phases: phase 1 &ndash; self-administered questionnaires, phase 2 &ndash; biomedical examination (including anthropometric measurements and physical function performance tests), and phase 3 &ndash; bioimpedance analysis. Results: Our results showed that chronic low back pain differentiates the circumference of thigh and calf of the symptomatic leg. Besides, patients experience pain also in hip, thigh, and calf, which act as a barrier to patient&rsquo;s personal, professional, social, and recreational activities. Furthermore, patients appear with &lsquo;unstable&rsquo; walking, reduced balance, and reduced general physical condition that affect all of the neuromuscular structures of the locomotor system. Interestingly, patients seem to be characterized by a tendency to deposit fat and to decrease muscle mass in the symptomatic limb regardless of the gender. Conclusions: In the present study, we determine the profile of a patient with chronic low back pain through a variety of measurements. Chronic low back pain causes several structural changes to the symptomatic leg of the patients leading to &lsquo;unstable&rsquo; walking, reduced balance, and reduced general physical condition. It is clear that further studies using bioimpedance analysis are needed to address the concerns raised by investigating a multifactorial condition such as chronic low back pain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (01) ◽  
pp. 53-56
Asim Iqbal Qureshi ◽  
Tehreem Rasheed ◽  
Ayesha Munir ◽  
Taqwa Firdous ◽  
Maria Khan ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of semen parameters in male partners of in sub-fertile couples. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynaecology, Bakhtawar Ameen Hospital, Multan. Period: July 2019 to July 2020. Material & Methods: Infertile couples from at least 12 months were selected for study. A team of Gynaecologist, andrologist and endocrinologist assessed the couples. In male partner, general physical examination, endocrine factor, genetic assessment, accessory gland infection and testicular dysfunction were evaluated. Semen sample was sent to laboratory for semen analysis. Results: In a total of 169 sub-fertile couples, the mean age of male and female partner were 37.98±4.54 years and 32.51±3.78 years respectively. Mean duration since marriage was 5.17±4.51 years. Abnormal semen parameters such as azoospermia, oilgo-azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia and aspermia were noted 21 (12.4%), 26 (15.4%), 48 (28.4%), 18 (10.7%) and 10 (5.9%) subjects respectively. There were 46 (27.2%) subjects with normal semen parameters. Conclusion: Most of the male sub-fertile subjects had asthenozoospermia. More than one fourth of the subjects had normal semen parameters.

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