BMJ Open
Latest Publications


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

23737
(FIVE YEARS 17183)

H-INDEX

98
(FIVE YEARS 50)

Published By Bmj

2044-6055, 2044-6055

BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e056678
Author(s):  
Uvini Tharumali Colonne ◽  
Isuru Dharmarathna ◽  
Dhammika Deepani Siriwardhana ◽  
Tamara Handy ◽  
Madhushika Harshani Gamage ◽  
...  

IntroductionThe quality and the range of vocational training (VT) courses offered to youth with disabilities (YwD) in low-middle-income countries are underexplored. This protocol describes a study designed to gather perceptions of a range of stakeholders related to the quality and relevance of VT programmes conducted by the Department of Social Services in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study is to communicate with authorities the ways in which they can improve their services by paying close attention to the needs and recommendations of all stakeholders.Methods and analysisA parallel mixed-methods study will be conducted at eight vocational training institutes (VTIs). A survey will be conducted with five participant groups; YwD presently enrolled in VTIs (n=358) and their caregivers (n=358), YwD who completed the VT (n=45) and their caregivers (n=45) and educators at VTIs (n=47). The qualitative component includes semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The three groups of participants include: educators, caregivers of potential YwD for future VT (6–10 per group) and key informants from state, corporate and non-governmental sectors (a total of 20). Quantitative and qualitative data will be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics and cross-thematic analysis, respectively.Ethics and disseminationThis study received ethical clearance from the Ethics Review Committee, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya (Ref. No: P/15/02/2021). All data collection processes will abide by health and safety measures required by the national government. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Results from this research will be disseminated, to local stakeholders and participants, via local and international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed journals.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e053488
Author(s):  
Yang Guo ◽  
Xia Dou ◽  
Xing-ling Jian ◽  
Kao-yuan Zhang ◽  
Ying-jie Zheng ◽  
...  

IntroductionAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease and skin microbiota dysbiosis shows an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Effects of treatment on skin microbiota for patients with AD have been evaluated in recent years; however, the results remained controversial across studies. This systematic review will summarise studies evaluating the effect of treatments on skin microbiota among patients with AD.Methods and analysisWe will search PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry in November 2021; other data sources will also be considered, including searching specific authors and screening references cited in the enrolled articles. Interventional studies, which enrolled patients with AD receiving treatments and reported treatment-related skin microbiota changes, will be included. Our primary outcomes include skin microbiota diversity and treatment-related differential microbes; the secondary outcomes include microbiota functions and microbial interactions. Risk of bias assessment will be performed using Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomised trials, risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions and methodological index for non-randomised studies. Two researchers will independently perform study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment, with disagreements resolved by group discussions. Subgroup analyses will be performed according to different types of treatment for AD.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval is not required for this systematic review. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication or conference proceedings.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021246566.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e056572
Author(s):  
Carsten Oliver Schmidt ◽  
Elizabeth Sierocinski ◽  
Sebastian Baumeister ◽  
Katrin Hegenscheid ◽  
Henry Völzke ◽  
...  

ObjectiveWhole-body MRI (wb-MRI) is increasingly used in research and screening but little is known about the effects of incidental findings (IFs) on health service utilisation and costs. Such effects are particularly critical in an observational study. Our principal research question was therefore how participation in a wb-MRI examination with its resemblance to a population-based health screening is associated with outpatient service costs.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingGeneral population Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.ParticipantsAnalyses included 5019 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania with statutory health insurance data. 2969 took part in a wb-MRI examination in addition to a clinical examination programme that was administered to all participants. MRI non-participants served as a quasi-experimental control group with propensity score weighting to account for baseline differences.Primary and secondary outcome measuresOutpatient costs (total healthcare usage, primary care, specialist care, laboratory tests, imaging) during 24 months after the examination were retrieved from claims data. Two-part models were used to compute treatment effects.ResultsIn total, 1366 potentially relevant IFs were disclosed to 948 MRI participants (32% of all participants); most concerned masses and lesions (769 participants, 81%). Costs for outpatient care during the 2-year observation period amounted to an average of €2547 (95% CI 2424 to 2671) for MRI non-participants and to €2839 (95% CI 2741 to 2936) for MRI participants, indicating an increase of €295 (95% CI 134 to 456) per participant which corresponds to 11.6% (95% CI 5.2% to 17.9%). The cost increase was sustained rather than being a short-term spike. Imaging and specialist care related costs were the main contributors to the increase in costs.ConclusionsCommunicated findings from population-based wb-MRI substantially impacted health service utilisation and costs. This introduced bias into the natural course of healthcare utilisation and should be taken care for in any longitudinal analyses.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e055490
Author(s):  
Andria Parrott ◽  
Bharathi J Zvara ◽  
Sarah A Keim ◽  
Rebecca Andridge ◽  
Sarah E Anderson

PurposeObesity prevention is increasingly focused on early childhood, but toddlers have not been well-studied, and children born preterm are frequently excluded. The Play & Grow Cohort was established to investigate child growth in relation to parent-child interactions in mealtime and non-mealtime settings.ParticipantsBetween December 2017 and May 2019, 300 toddlers and primary caregivers were recruited from records of a large paediatric care provider in Columbus, Ohio, USA. This report describes recruitment of the cohort and outlines the data collection protocols for two toddler and two preschool-age visits. The first study visit coincided with enrolment and occurred when children (57% boys) were a mean (SD) calendar age of 18.2 (0.7) months.Findings to dateChildren in the cohort are diverse relative to gestational age at birth (16%, 28–31 completed weeks’ gestation; 21%, 32–36 weeks’ gestation; 63%, ≥37 weeks’ gestation) and race/ethnicity (8%, Hispanic; 35%, non-Hispanic black; 46%, non-Hispanic white). Caregivers enrolled in the cohort are primarily the child’s biological mother (93%) and are diverse in age (range 18–54 years), education (23%, high school or less; 20% graduate degree) and annual household income (27%, <US$20 000 24%, ≥US$90 000). Parent-child interactions were video-recorded during play in the laboratory at 18 months (n=299) and during play, reading and mealtime in the home (n=284) at 24 months. The preschool phase of the study was impacted by COVID-19. Parent-child interactions were video-recorded during play and mealtime at home at 36 months (n=141) and during a standardised buffet meal in the laboratory at 42 months (n=50). Caregivers unable to participate in face-to-face visits due to COVID-19 completed questionnaires.Future plansAssessment during middle childhood is being planned. Future visits will include anthropometric measurements and parent-child interactions at mealtime. School-based outcomes are additionally being considered.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e052137
Author(s):  
Hong-Juan Fu ◽  
Hao Zhou ◽  
Yong Tang ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Da Zhang ◽  
...  

IntroductionFatigue is one of the most common symptoms in patients with cancer and is responsible for a reduced quality of life. There is a strong evidence base for mind–body interventions (MBIs) to manage cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, the efficacy of Tai Chi and other MBIs in the treatment of CRF remains controversial.Methods and analysisWe will perform a systematic review and network meta-analyses (NMAs) that aim to assess the effects of Tai Chi and other MBIs in patients with CRF. The following databases will be searched from their inception to 1 August 2021: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, OVID, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Database and Wan Fang Digital Journals. We will include randomised controlled trials that compare MBIs with no treatment, placebo and usual care in the treatment of CRF. The primary outcome will be changes in the fatigue state as evaluated by validated scales. We will perform a Bayesian NMA to analyse all the evidence for each outcome. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve and the mean ranks will be used to rank the various treatments. We will assess the quality of evidence contributing to network estimates of outcomes using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system framework.Ethics and disseminationThis NMAs will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Since no individual patient data will be involved in the review, ethics approval and concerns about privacy are not needed.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42021244999.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e057618
Author(s):  
Daniel O’Keefe ◽  
J Gunn ◽  
Kathleen Ryan ◽  
Filip Djordjevic ◽  
Phoebe Kerr ◽  
...  

IntroductionThe advent of direct acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) means the elimination of HCV is possible but requires sustained effort to achieve. Between 2016 and 2019, 44% of those living with HCV were treated in Australia. However, treatment uptake has declined significantly. In Australia, people who inject drugs (PWID) are the population most at risk of HCV acquisition. Eliminating HCV in Australia will require nuanced understanding of the barriers to HCV treatment experienced by PWID and tailored interventions to address these barriers. The EC-Experience Cohort study aims to explore the barriers and enablers reported by PWID to engagement in HCV care.Methods and analysisThe EC-Experience Cohort study is a prospective cohort of PWID, established in Melbourne, Australia in 2018. Participants are assigned into three study groups: (1) those not currently engaged in HCV testing; (2) those diagnosed with HCV but not currently engaged in treatment and (3) those completed treatment. Participants complete a total of four interviews every 6 months across an 18-month study period. Predictors of experience of key outcome events along the HCV care cascade will be explored over time.Ethics and disseminationEthical approval for the EC-Experience Cohort study was obtained by the Alfred Hospital Ethics Committee in Melbourne, Australia (Project Number: HREC/16/Alfred/164). All eligible participants are assessed for capacity to consent and partake in a thorough informed consent process. Results from the EC-Experience Cohort study will be disseminated via national and international scientific and public health conferences and peer-reviewed journal publications. Data from the EC-Experience Cohort study will improve the current understanding of the barriers to HCV care for PWID and guide the tailoring of service provision for specific subgroups. Understanding the barriers and how to increase engagement in care of PWID is critical to achieve HCV elimination goals.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e055525
Author(s):  
Yik-Ki Jacob Wan ◽  
Guilherme Del Fiol ◽  
Mary M McFarland ◽  
Melanie C Wright

IntroductionEarly identification of patients who may suffer from unexpected adverse events (eg, sepsis, sudden cardiac arrest) gives bedside staff valuable lead time to care for these patients appropriately. Consequently, many machine learning algorithms have been developed to predict adverse events. However, little research focuses on how these systems are implemented and how system design impacts clinicians’ decisions or patient outcomes. This protocol outlines the steps to review the designs of these tools.Methods and analysisWe will use scoping review methods to explore how tools that leverage machine learning algorithms in predicting adverse events are designed to integrate into clinical practice. We will explore the types of user interfaces deployed, what information is displayed, and how clinical workflows are supported. Electronic sources include Medline, Embase, CINAHL Complete, Cochrane Library (including CENTRAL), and IEEE Xplore from 1 January 2009 to present. We will only review primary research articles that report findings from the implementation of patient deterioration surveillance tools for hospital clinicians. The articles must also include a description of the tool’s user interface. Since our primary focus is on how the user interacts with automated tools driven by machine learning algorithms, electronic tools that do not extract data from clinical data documentation or recording systems such as an EHR or patient monitor, or otherwise require manual entry, will be excluded. Similarly, tools that do not synthesise information from more than one data variable will also be excluded. This review will be limited to English-language articles. Two reviewers will review the articles and extract the data. Findings from both researchers will be compared with minimise bias. The results will be quantified, synthesised and presented using appropriate formats.Ethics and disseminationEthics review is not required for this scoping review. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e051888
Author(s):  
Chao Yang ◽  
Jianyan Long ◽  
Ying Shi ◽  
Zhiye Zhou ◽  
Jinwei Wang ◽  
...  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the healthcare resource utilisation for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) in China.DesignA cross-sectional study.SettingA national inpatient database of tertiary hospitals in China.ParticipantsThe study included a total of 19.5 million hospitalisations of adult patients from July 2013 to June 2014. Information on CKD and other major NCDs, including coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer, was extracted from the unified discharge summary form.Outcome measuresCost, length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality.ResultsThe percentages of hospitalisations with CKD, CHD, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, COPD and cancer were 4.5%, 9.2%, 8.2%, 18.8%, 7.9%, 2.3% and 19.4%, respectively. For each major NCD, the presence of CKD was independently associated with longer hospital stay, with increased percentages ranging from 7.69% (95% CI 7.11% to 8.28%) for stroke to 21.60% (95% CI 21.09% to 22.10%) for CHD. Hospital mortality for other NCDs was also higher in the presence of CKD, with fully adjusted relative risk ranging from 1.91 (95% CI 1.82 to 1.99) for stroke to 2.65 (95% CI 2.55 to 2.75) for cancer. Compared with other NCDs, CKD was associated with the longest hospital stay (22.1% increase) and resulted in the second highest in-hospital mortality, only lower than that of cancer (relative risk, 2.23 vs 2.87, respectively).ConclusionsThe presence of diagnosed CKD alongside each major NCD was associated with an additional burden on the healthcare system. Healthcare resource utilisation and prognosis of CKD were comparable with those of other major NCDs, which highlights the importance of CKD as a major public health burden.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e046334
Author(s):  
Mohammed Bukar ◽  
Asta Umar Mana ◽  
Nasiru Ikunaiye

ObjectiveTo determine if the presence or absence of sonographic sliding sign preoperatively is a good predictor of the presence and type of intra-abdominal adhesions; and to determine the time taken to demonstrate this sign.DesignA prospective, observational, triple-blind study using tests of diagnostic accuracy.SettingSingle-centre tertiary health institution in north-east Nigeria.Participants67 women in the third trimester scheduled for repeat elective caesarean sections (CS) had transabdominal sonography to determine the absence or presence and degree of sliding sign. The time taken to make these decisions were noted. Surgeons blinded to the ultrasound findings graded adhesions intraoperatively and comparison between sonographic and intraoperative findings made. Women who were scheduled for emergency CS were excluded.Main outcome measuresAccuracy of preoperative ultrasound to determine no/mild, moderate and severe adhesions. Secondary outcomes were interobserver correlations and time taken to determine sliding.ResultsWhen classified as adhesion and no adhesion, the sliding sign demonstrated a sensitivity of 100.00% (CI95 85.18% to 100.00%), specificity of 100.00% (CI95 92.13% to 100.00%). In predicting presence of moderate intra-abdominal adhesions, a sensitivity of 65.0% (CI95 40.78% to 84.61%) and specificity of 82.98% (CI95 69.19% to 92.35%) was found. For predicting severe intra-abdominal adhesions, it had a sensitivity of 25.00% (CI95 0.63% to 80.59%) and specificity of 98.41 (CI95 91.47 to 99.96). Disease prevalence for mild, moderate and severe adhesions was 33.82% (CI95 22.79% to 46.32%), 29.85% (CI95 19.28% to 42.27%) and 5.97% (CI95 1.65% to 14.59%), respectively. Interobserver Cohen’s kappa coefficient and PPA were 0.58 (CI95 0.39 to 0.76) and 58.82 (CI95 52.82 to 64.82), respectively. The mean duration to determine sliding sign was 7.56±2.86 s.ConclusionThis study supports the role of transabdominal sliding sign in preoperative prediction of intra-abdominal adhesions in women with previous CS without significant increase in sonography duration. This information can encourage planning for CS by ensuring that surgeons of appropriate seniority are deployed to undertake anticipated complex operations.


BMJ Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. e056476
Author(s):  
Antoine Tran ◽  
Anne-Laure Hérissé ◽  
Marion Isoardo ◽  
Petri Valo ◽  
Anne-Marie Maillotte ◽  
...  

ObjectiveTo evaluate compliance with the French National Authority for Health’s (Haute Autorité de Santé, HAS) postbirth follow-up recommendations for newborns attending our paediatric emergency department (PED) and identify risk factors associated with non-compliance and unnecessary emergency department utilisation.DesignProspective, single centre.SettingFourth biggest PED in France in terms of attendance (CHU-Lenval).Patients280 patients of whom 249 were included in the statistical analysis.Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome of this study was the evaluation of compliance of the care pathway for newborns consulting at the PED with respect to the French postbirth follow-up recommendations. Secondary outcome was the assessment of whether the visit to the PED was justified by means of PED reception software and two postconsultation interviewsResults77.5% (193) of the newborns had non-compliant care pathways and 43% (107) of PED visits were unnecessary. Risk factors associated with a non-compliance regarding the HAS’s postbirth follow-up recommendations were: unnecessary visit to the PED (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9), precariousness (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.2), birth in a public maternity hospital (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8) and no information about HAS’s postbirth follow-up recommendations on discharge from maternity ward (OR 11.4, 95% CI 5.8 to 23.3). Risk factors for unnecessary PED visits were: non-compliant care pathway (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) and a first medical visit at a PED (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.1).ConclusionPostbirth follow-up may lead to decrease unnecessary emergency department visits unnecessary emergency department visits.Trial registration numberThe study bears the clinical trial number NCT02863627.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document