BackgroundA significant proportion of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated glomerulonephritis eventually progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) thus requiring long-term dialysis. There is no consensus about which dialysis modality is more recommended for those patients with associated vasculitis (AAV-ESRD). The primary objective of this study was to compare patient survival in patients with AAV-ESRD treated with hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD).MethodsThis double-center retrospective cohort study included dialysis-dependent patients who were treated with HD or PD. Clinical data were collected under standard format. The Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) was used to evaluate disease activity at diagnosis and organ damage was assessed using the vasculitis damage index (VDI) at dialysis initiation.ResultsIn total, 85 patients were included: 64 with hemodialysis and 21 with peritoneal dialysis. The patients with AAV-PD were much younger than the AAV-HD patients (48 vs. 62, P < 0.01) and more were female (76.2 vs. 51.6%, P = 0.05). The laboratory data were almost similar. The comorbidities, VDI score, and immuno-suppressive therapy at dialysis initiation were almost no statistical difference. Patient survival rates between HD and PD at 1 year were 65.3 vs. 90% (P = 0.062), 3 year were 59.6 vs. 90% (P < 0.001), and 5 years were 59.6 vs. 67.5% (P = 0.569). The overall survival was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.086) and the dialysis modality (HD or PD) was not shown to be an independent predictor for all-cause death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31–1.7; P = 0.473). Cardio-cerebrovascular events were the main cause of death among AAV-HD patients while infection in patients with AAV-PD.ConclusionThese results provide real-world data that the use of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis modality does not affect patient survival for patients with AAV-ESRD who need long-term dialysis.
Background: The role of monitoring serum vancomycin levels during treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis is controversial. Substantial inter-individual variability may result in suboptimal serum levels despite similar dosing of vancomycin. The published predictors of suboptimal serum vancomycin levels remain limited. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from 541 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 312019. For gram-positive cocci and culture-negative peritonitis, we adopted a vancomycin administration and monitoring protocol. Short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, including transfer to haemodialysis, death, persistent infection beyond planned therapy duration and relapse, were observed. The association between trough serum vancomycin levels and short-term adverse outcomes was evaluated. Results: Intraperitoneal vancomycin was used in 61 gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis episodes in 56 patients. Fourteen episodes of short-term adverse outcomes occurred in 12 patients, whose average trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5 of treatment were significantly lower than those who didn’t experience any adverse outcomes (8.4 ± 1.7 vs 12.5 ± 4.3 mg/L, p = 0.003). In gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis patients, those with higher day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels had a lower risk of short-term adverse outcomes (odds ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 0.9, p = 0.011). Receiver operating charecteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed that the day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels diagnostic threshold value for short-term adverse outcomes was 10.1 mg/L. After adjustments for gender, exchange volume and residual kidney function (RKF), baseline higher peritoneal transport was associated with a suboptimal (<10.1 mg/L) day 5 serum vancomycin level. Conclusions: Serum vancomycin levels are correlated with short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, and higher peritoneal solute transport status is associated with suboptimal trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5.
In the absence of guidelines on the management of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis in patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), variations in clinical practice potentially exist between PD units that could affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to document the current practices of treating PD-associated peritonitis in patients on APD across Australia and New Zealand and the reasons for practice variations using a cross-sectional online survey. Of the 62 PD units, 34 medical leads (55%) responded to the survey. When treating APD-associated peritonitis, 21 units (62%) continued patients on APD and administered intraperitoneal (IP) antibiotics in manual daytime exchanges; of these, 17 (81%) considered allowing at least 6 h dwell time for adequate absorption of the IP antibiotics as an important reason for adding manual daytime exchange. Nine units (26%) temporarily switched patients from APD to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); of these, five (55%) reported a lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data for IP antibiotics in APD, four (44%) reported a shortage of APD-trained nursing staff to perform APD exchanges during hospitalisation and three (33%) reported inadequate time for absorption of IP antibiotics on APD as important reasons for their practice. Four units (12%) continued patients on APD and administered IP antibiotics during APD exchanges; of these, three (75%) believed that PK data available in CAPD could be extrapolated to APD. This study demonstrates wide variations in the management of APD-associated peritonitis in Australia and New Zealand; it points towards the lack of PK on antibiotics used to treat peritonitis as an important reason underpinning practice variations.
Introduction: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of haemodialysis, but uncommon in peritoneal dialysis (PD). This may be due to lower ultrafiltration rates in PD compared to haemodialysis, allowing for sufficient refilling of the blood plasma compartment from the interstitial volume, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we assessed plasma volume and hemodynamic alterations during experimental PD with high versus low ultrafiltration rates. Methods: Experiments were conducted in two groups of healthy Sprague-Dawley rats: one group with a high ultrafiltration rate ( N = 7) induced by 8.5% glucose and a low UF group ( N = 6; 1.5% glucose), with an initial assessment of the extracellular fluid volume, followed by 30 min PD with plasma volume measurements at baseline, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. Mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure and heart rate were continuously monitored during the experiment. Results: No significant changes over time in plasma volume, mean arterial pressure or central venous pressure were detected during the course of the experiments, despite an ultrafiltration (UF) rate of 56 mL/h/kg in the high UF group. In the high UF group, a decrease in extracellular fluid volume of −7 mL (−10.7% (95% confidence interval: −13.8% to −7.6%)) was observed, in line with the average UF volume of 8.0 mL (standard deviation: 0.5 mL). Conclusion: Despite high UF rates, we found that plasma volumes were remarkably preserved in the present experiments, indicating effective refilling of the plasma compartment from interstitial tissues. Further studies should clarify which mechanisms preserve the plasma volume during high UF rates in PD.
AbstractAssisted peritoneal dialysis (asPD) is a modality intended for not self-sufficient patients, mainly elderly, who are not able to perform peritoneal dialysis (PD) alone and require some help to manage the treatment. In the last decades, many countries developed strategies of asPD to face with aging of dialysis population and give an answer to the increasing demand of health service for elderly. Model of asPD varies according to the type of assistants employed and intensity of assistance provided. Both health care and non-health care assistants have been used with good clinical results. A mixed model of help, using different professional figures for short time or for longer according to patients’ need, has been proved successful and cost-effective. Outcomes of asPD are reported in different ways, and the comparative effect of asPD is unclear. Quality of life has rarely been evaluated; however, patients seem to be satisfied with the assistance provided, since it allows them to both retain independence and to be relieved from the burden of self-care. Assisted PD should not be intended as a PD-favoring strategy, but as a model that allows home dialysis also in patients who would not be eligible for PD because of social, cognitive or physical barriers.