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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Umar ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
S. K. Maloney

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-176
Yosuke Shibata ◽  
Yasunari Kurita ◽  
Takaaki Hanada ◽  
Hirofumi Yamashita ◽  
Toshiki Ashizawa ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Saeed Mastour Alshahrani ◽  
Abdullah F. Alghannam ◽  
Nada Taha ◽  
Shurouq Saeed Alqahtani ◽  
Abrar Al-Mutairi ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on various health conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on body weight and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi Arabia. We used electronic health records obtained from a healthcare system representing five hospitals in three different regions in the Kingdom to examine the change in weight utilizing a longitudinal design. The study included all adults who had visited outpatient clinics in two different time points, pre-2020 (years 2018 and 2019 prior to COVID-19) and post-2020 (the year 2021). Weight and BMI changes in percentages were described. Also, bivariate chi-square test, paired t-test, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression model were used for the analyses. A total of 165,279 individuals were included in the study. On average, a significant weight gain of 0.33 kg (95% CI: 0.29–0.36) was observed in our study. Approximately 10% of the population had shifted to either overweight or obese BMI classes during the study period, as 4.8% of those with normal BMI pre-2020 had shifted to overweight or obese classes at post-2020, and 5.1% of those who were overweight had shifted to obese class. Also, 23.1% of the population had gained 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight, while 17% had lost 5% or more. Young individuals were over three times more likely to gain 5% or more than older individuals (OR: 3.34; 95% CI: 3.12–3.56). Females had 24% higher odds to gain 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight than males (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.21–1.27). Diabetics were 27% more likely to lose 5% or more than non-diabetics (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.23–1.31). Our findings provide insights into the impact of COVID-19 on weight and population health. Further investment in interventions for weight management is warranted during similar circumstances such as lockdowns due to infection waves or new variants. Future studies are also needed to explore the modifications that have occurred during the pandemic in the weight-related lifestyle factors such as dietary choices and physical activity levels.

2022 ◽  
Mikyung Lee ◽  
Hyeonkyeong Lee ◽  
Ki Jun Song ◽  
Young-Me Lee

Abstract This secondary data analysis study aimed to examine the changes in physical activities (PAs) over time (2009-2017) in the same participants and to determine an association between changes in PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in early older adults (n=994) using data from the Korea Health Panel Survey. The HRQoL was measured using the EuroQol quality-of-life system and the amount of PA were grouped to 4 activity levels (remained inactive, became inactive, became active, and remained active). The association of changes in PA over 8 years with HRQoL was examined using logistic regression analysis while controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors. The total PA decreased from 1,859.72±1,760.01 MET-minutes in 2009 to 1,264.80 ±1,251.14 MET-minutes in 2017 (P < 0.001). In 2017, 142 (14.3%) remained inactive, whereas 419 (42.2%) remained active. The participants who remained inactive at early old age were more likely to be at the lowest 10% HRQoL of the sample (odds ratio = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.09–3.48). This indicates that educating middle-aged adults who are relatively inactive must be a priority in order to maintain and improve PA, enhance HRQoL, and maximize the benefits of PA in old age.

Maria John Spanoudaki ◽  
Antonios Theodoros Cheimaras ◽  
Maria Pavlos Papadopoulou ◽  
Prokopios Dimitrios Rountos

Background: Television (TV) viewing and computer (PC) use have been associated with poor health outcomes. Aim: To investigate the association of TV viewing and PC use with recreational physical activity energy expenditure (RPAEE), obesity indices, physical activity levels (PAL) and body fat percentage (BF%) of adult women. Methods: Bodyweight (BW), height, waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences of 150 adult women were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The BF% was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The Athens Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess PAL, RPAE, TV viewing and PC hours. Results: The majority of women (53%) were overweight and obese, watched TV for >14 hr/wk (59%), and almost half (47%) of them used computers for >1 hr/day. Slightly more than half of them (54%) had a sedentary lifestyle and reported exercise participation for <2 hr/wk. No walking for leisure was reported by one-third of the subjects, while an alarming low percentage (0.7%) walked only 2.5 hr/wk. No participation in informal physical activity was reported by 69%. RPAEE was estimated at 982 ± 973 kcal/wk and negatively correlated to TV-watching hours (r = –0.31, p < 0.05), computer use (r = –0.3, p < 0.05), BMI (r = –0.44, p < 0.01), BW (r = –0.44, p < 0.01), WC (r = –0.41, p < 0.01), WHR (r = –0.31, p = 0.01). Moreover, RPAEE and BF% were negatively correlated (r = –0.44, p < 0.01). BF% was associated with long hours of PC use and TV watching (R2 = 0.11, F1.148 = 17.94, p = 0.00; R2 = 0.14, F1.148 = 5.4, p = 0.002). Conclusion: Screen use affecting obesity indices seemed to overrun recreational time for physical activity participation and dominate women’s lifestyle. Further research targeting behavioral change practices is recommended. Keywords: obesity, women, physical activity, recreational physical activity expenditure

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Linda E. Scheffers ◽  
Willem A. Helbing ◽  
Elisabeth M. W. J. Utens ◽  
Gwen C. Dieleman ◽  
Karolijn Dulfer ◽  

Introduction: Physical activity is associated with many physiological and psychological health benefits across the lifespan. Children with a chronic disease often have lower levels of daily physical activity, and a decreased exercise capacity compared to healthy peers. In order to learn more about limitations for physical activity, we investigate children with four different chronic diseases: children with a Fontan circulation, children with Broncho Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), Pompe disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Each of these diseases is likely to interfere with physical activity in a different way. Knowing the specific limitations for physical activity would make it possible to target these, and increase physical activity by a personalized intervention. The aim of this study is to first investigate limitations for physical activity in children with various chronic diseases. Secondly, to measure the effects of a tailored exercise intervention, possibly including a personalized dietary advice and/or psychological counseling, on exercise capacity, endurance, quality of life, fatigue, fear for exercise, safety, muscle strength, physical activity levels, energy balance, and body composition.Methods and Analysis: This randomized crossover trial will aim to include 72 children, aged 6–18 years, with one of the following diagnosis: a Fontan circulation, BPD, Pompe disease and IBD. Eligible patients will participate in the 12-week tailored exercise intervention and are either randomized to start with a control period or start with the intervention. The tailored 12-week exercise interventions, possibly including a personalized dietary advice and/or psychological counseling, will be designed based on the found limitations for physical activity in each disease group during baseline measurements by the Rotterdam Exercise Team. Effects of the tailored training interventions will be measured on the following endpoints: exercise capacity (measured by cardiopulmonary exercise test), endurance, physical activity levels, muscle strength, quality of life, fatigue, fear for exercise, disease activity, cardiac function (in children with a Fontan circulation), energy balance, and body composition.Ethics and Dissemination: Conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice. Medical-ethical approval was obtained.Trial Registration Number: NL8181,

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 75
Yongkai Sun ◽  
Xi Luo ◽  
Hui Ming

Owing to movement in the spatial environment and changes in activity levels, students’ thermal perception is time varying in classrooms throughout different periods of the day. However, previous studies have rarely considered the time-varying thermal perception in different periods of the day, which may cause discomfort for students and lead to energy wastage. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate the time-varying thermal perception of students and its influencing factors in different classes of the day. In addition, the differences in students’ adaptive behaviors in different periods were also explored. A total of 578 university students were surveyed using questionnaire surveys during the heating season in Xi’an, China. The following results can be obtained: (1) The thermal sensation vote and thermal preference vote values in the afternoon were significantly higher than those in the morning. At the start of the first class in the morning/afternoon, the thermal sensation of the students had the highest sensitivity to outdoor temperature changes. (2) The students’ thermal perception was greatly affected by the preclass activity state at the start of the first class in the morning/afternoon. However, in other periods, the above phenomenon was not obvious. (3) In the afternoon, the frequency of clothing adjustment was greater than that in the morning, and this behavior would significantly affect the students’ thermal sensation. (4) Compared with the current classroom heating strategy, the heating strategy of dynamically adjusting the indoor set temperature according to the time-varying characteristics of the students can theoretically achieve energy savings of 25.6%.

Rebecca Wilkinson ◽  
Lynn Smith ◽  
Simone Ferreira

Background: Little epidemiological research on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been done in Africa, suggesting that it is an uncommon illness. In rural South Africa, RA has an overall prevalence of 0.07% and a prevalence of 2.5% in urban areas; therefore, it is not as uncommon as perceived by the lack of research. Patient-centred programmes to improve physical function have been lacking and, as a result, the prior assumption was that physical activity should be avoided. Objectives: To determine pain and physical activity levels among RA patients between the ages of 18 to 50 years in South Africa. Methods: A combination of two questionnaires were used, namely, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (2002) and the Pain Outcomes Questionnaire (2003). The collated questionnaires were distributed by rheumatologists and on social media platforms to RA patients between the ages of 18 to 50 years old living in South Africa. This study had a sample size of 105 participants, with participation occurring through the online Google forms platform. Results: One hundred and five participants with RA were recruited with an average age of 38±9 years. Most of the participants were females (93.3%). Seventy-two percent of the sample was classified as physically active, where work, leisure and travel activities were considered. No significant correlation between pain and physical activity was evident (r=0.10; p=0.311). Results showed significant correlations between pain and personal grooming (r=0.30; p=0.002), pain and ambulation (r=0.60; p=0.000), and pain and stair climbing (r=0.60; p=0.000). Conclusion: Physical activity has proven to have multiple benefits for those suffering with RA. In this South African sample of RA patients, the majority were classified as physically active, and pain did not affect the activity levels of the involved participants. This study opens further research questions regarding RA prevalence in South Africa, and the type and intensity of physical activity that would be beneficial for RA.

2022 ◽  
Christian Berrig ◽  
Viggo Andreasen ◽  
Bjarke Frost Nielsen

Testing strategies have varied widely between nation states during the COVID-19 pandemic, in intensity as well as methodology. Some countries have mainly performed diagnostic testing while others have opted for mass-screening for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 as well. COVID passport solutions have been introduced, in which access to several aspects of public life requires either testing, proof of vaccination or a combination thereof. This creates a coupling between personal activity levels and testing behaviour which, as we show, leverages the heterogeneous behaviours in the population and turns this heterogeneity from a disadvantage to an advantage for epidemic control.

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