Life participation requiring physical activity and physical function is a key patient-reported outcome for people receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). Clinician guidance is required from multidisciplinary sources regarding exercise and activity advice to address the specific needs of this group. From August 2020 through to June 2021, the Global Renal Exercise Network and the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis reviewed the published literature and international clinical experience to develop a set of clinical practice points. A set of questions relevant to physical activity and exercise were developed from the perspective of a person receiving PD and were the basis for the practice point development. The GRADE framework was used to evaluate the quality of evidence and to guide clinical practice points. The review of the literature found sparse quality evidence, and thus the clinical practice points are generally based on the expert consensus of people receiving PD, PD exercise expert clinicians and experienced PD exercise researchers. Clinical practice points address timing of exercise and activity (post-catheter insertion, peritoneal space empty or full), the uptake of specific activities (work, sex, swimming, core exercise), potential adverse outcomes related to activity and exercise (exit site care, perspiration, cardiovascular compromise, fatigue, intra-abdominal pressure), the effect of exercise and activity on conditions of interest (mental health, obesity, frailty, low fitness) and exercise nutrition.
Despite growing evidence about the benefits of physical activity and exercise in patients receiving dialysis, physical inactivity is highly prevalent. This may be due to uncertainty and lack of appropriate guidance about exercise, or driven by the relative barriers and benefits that patients perceive. Understanding these perceptions in dialysis patients may inform interventions aimed to increase exercise participation.
Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise were measured by the ‘Dialysis Patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale’ (DPEBBS). Self-reported physical activity status was assessed by the ‘General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire’. Barriers and benefits to exercise were classed as binary variables (i.e. yes and no). Frequency analyses and chi-squared tests were conducted to compare the differences perceived by people on haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Binominal logistical regression was performed to determine which perceived barriers and benefits had the biggest impact on physical activity status.
One thousand twenty-two HD and 124 PD patients completed the DPEBBS. A greater proportion of HD than PD patients reported ‘reduces body pain’ (P = 0.013), ‘delays decline in body function’ (P = 0.01), and ‘improves quality of life’ (P = 0.033) as benefits of exercise. No differences in barriers were observed. Tiredness was the most reported barrier to exercise. Patients who perceived ‘other comorbidities’ (OR 3.389, P < 0.001) or ‘burden of family’ (OR 3.168, P < 0.001) as barriers were 3 times more likely to be inactive.
Dialysis patients perceive several barriers which may prevent them from engaging in physical activity. Addressing these barriers may be key to increasing participation in physical activity and exercise.
Background: Despite scientific evidence on prenatal physical activity and exercise, synthesized evidence is lacking on the provision of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice and counselling by prenatal healthcare providers. The scoping review seeks to fill this gap by synthesizing available literature on the provision of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice and counselling by prenatal healthcare providers to women during antenatal visits. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) search framework for scoping reviews was applied to retrieve original research articles on the prenatal physical activity and exercise practices of healthcare providers with pregnant women, published between 2010–2020, and available in English. The search databases included Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), BIOMED Central, Medline and African Journal Online. Studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were retrieved for analysis. Results: Out of the 82 articles that were retrieved for review, 13 met the eligibility criteria. Seven of the articles were quantitative, four qualitative, one mixed-method and one controlled, non-randomised study, respectively. Three themes emerged as major findings. Healthcare providers affirmed their responsibility in providing prenatal physical activity advice and counselling to pregnant women; however, they seldom or rarely performed this role. Major barriers to prenatal physical activity and exercise included insufficient time, lack of knowledge and skills, inadequate or insufficient training, and lack of resources. Conclusion: This review highlights salient features constraining the uptake of prenatal physical activity and exercise advice/counselling by prenatal healthcare providers in both community and clinical settings. Prenatal physical activity advice and counselling are key components to the promotion of physical activity adherence during and post-partum pregnancy; this requires adequate knowledge of physical activity prescriptions and recommendations, which are personalised and contextual to environment. Research is needed to examine the prenatal physical activity advice and counselling from prenatal healthcare providers on issues hindering effective delivery of the aforementioned in the context of promoting prenatal physical activity in clinical or community settings.
BackgroundResearch evidence supports the assertion that healthy employees are happier and more productive. Employers prefer to hire healthy workers to reduce absenteeism. Rehabilitation counselors have started to explore health promotion interventions to help individuals with chronic health conditions and disability improve their physical and mental health as a strategy to increase their employment opportunities.PurposeThe present study evaluated a self-determination theory (SDT) model of physical activity and exercise in a sample of 218 individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain using structural equation modeling.ResultsThe SDT model fit the data well, accounting for 54% of the variance in physical activity and exercise. Relatedness was significantly associated with autonomous motivation for physical activity and exercise. Autonomous motivation was associated with competency. Competency was associated with physical activity and exercise. Autonomous motivation and competency mediated relatedness and physical activity and exercise.ImplicationsThis study contributes to an emerging body of theory-informed health promotion literature and identifies the specific pathways that will increase the motivation to engage in physical activity and exercise. Findings can be used to design and validate theory-driven health promotion interventions as an employment strategy for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain receiving vocational rehabilitation services.