radiocarbon dates
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2022 ◽  
Vol 41 ◽  
pp. 103289
Nicholas V. Kessler ◽  
Matthew C. Guebard ◽  
Gregory W.L. Hodgins ◽  
Lucas Hoedl

Radiocarbon ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Kenechukwu Chidiogo Daniel ◽  
Anselm Maduabuchi Ibeanu ◽  
Jacinta Uchenna Ikegwu ◽  
Emuobosa Akpo Orijemie

ABSTRACT This paper presents new results of radiocarbon (14C) ages from archaeological sites in northern Igboland. The study was designed to shed more light on early human occupation and activities in the study area based on sediments from cave and iron-smelting sites. The approach consisted of ethnographic, archaeological, palynological, and slag analyses; these were complemented with 14C dates. The technology adopted as well as the paleoenvironmental conditions that prevailed during the period of human settlement in both sites was revealed. These data, complemented by 14C dates, highlight the human behavioral and subsistence patterns within the region and are comparable to those from similar sites in southeastern Nigeria.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Susumu Tanabe ◽  
Toshimichi Nakanishi ◽  
Rei Nakashima

AbstractStudies of the evolution of coastal lowlands since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) typically ignore radiocarbon data from sediment samples that have undergone reworking. However, these samples contain information on their sediment sources and the timing of their redeposition. We analyzed 738 radiocarbon dates obtained from shell and plant material in samples of post-LGM coastal sediment from north of Tokyo Bay, Japan. Of these samples, 245 (33%) were reworked. Furthermore, the percentage of reworked samples and their average age offsets increased with the depth of the water environment (terrestrial, 15% and 360 ± 250 years, respectively; intertidal, 26% and 470 ± 620 years; subtidal, 39% and 550 ± 630 years). Taking these radiocarbon samples as a proxy for clastic material, our results imply that channel erosion accounted for relatively little clastic removal in the terrestrial and intertidal environments over short timescales, whereas ~ 40% of clastics were removed by storm winnowing and transported in stepwise fashion to deeper water over longer timescales and ~ 60% in the subtidal environment were transported by floods directly from river mouths. These findings imply that radiocarbon ages from reworked samples can be used to quantify clastic recycling processes and their history in coastal areas.

М. Е. Килуновская ◽  
П. М. Леус

Статья посвящена вопросам датировки могильников эпохи хунну Ала - Тей 1 и Терезин в Туве. В ходе раскопок получен значительный материал, включая непотревоженные захоронения с разнообразным погребальным обрядом и богатым инвентарём. Помимо широко распространённых в это время баночных керамических сосудов, железных ножей, шильев и других бытовых предметов, здесь найдены многочисленные, в том числе уникальные образцы декоративно - прикладного искусства древних кочевников - большие ажурные пряжки с зооморфным или геометрическим орнаментом, инкрустированные и гравированные пряжки - пластины из сибирского гагата, китайские бронзовые зеркала и монеты у - шу, хуннские вазовидные сосуды и пр. Для некоторых погребений получены радиоуглеродные даты. Исходя из анализа погребального инвентаря и результатов радиоуглеродного датирования, время существования этих могильников можно отнести ко 2 - 1 вв. до н. э. The article is devoted to the dating of burial grounds of the Xiongnu Epoch Ala - Tey 1 and Terezin in Tuva. During the excavations, signifi cant material was obtained, including undisturbed burials with a variety of funeral rites and rich inventory. In addition to the widely used ceramic vessels, iron knives, awls and other household items, archaeologists found here numerous and unique samples of ancient nomads’ decorative and applied art - big openwork buckles with zoomorphic or geometric ornaments, inlaid and engraved buckles - plates made of Siberian jet coal, Chinese bronze mirrors and Wu - shu coins, Xiongnu vase - shaped vessels, etc. Radiocarbon dates were defi ned for some burials. Based on the analysis of the burial inventory and the results of radiocarbon dating, the time of existence of these burial grounds can be related to the 2nd - 1st centuries BC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Michelle R. Bebber ◽  
Alastair J. M. Key

The discovery and development of metal as a tool medium is a topic of global interest. A fundamental research goal involves establishing the timing of human experimentation with naturally occurring copper ore, which is commonly associated with sedentary, agrarian-based societies. However, in North America, there is well-documented millennia-scale exploitation of copper as tool media by small, seasonally mobile hunter-gatherer groups in the western Great Lakes. Archaeologists have suggested that Late Paleoindian groups may have begun using copper as a tool medium almost immediately after they entered the Lake Superior basin. However, only a few radiocarbon dates support such early use of copper. Here, we use optimal linear estimation modeling to infer the origin date for copper tool production in North America. Our results show that the invention of copper as a tool media likely occurred shortly after the first pioneering populations encountered copper ore during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The origin dates modeled here (ca. 8100 RCYBP) reveal several important features about the behavior of pioneering hunter-gatherer populations. Moreover, our results suggest that this phenomenon represents the earliest known use of metal for utilitarian copper tool production.

2022 ◽  
pp. 159-184

2021 ◽  
Vol 73 (3) ◽  
pp. 315-358
František Trampota ◽  
Jarmila Bíšková ◽  
Alžběta Čerevková ◽  
Ivan Čižmář ◽  
Eva Drozdová ◽  

The article addresses the chronology of Eneolithic inhumation burials in Moravia based on radiocarbon dating. A total of 17 individuals were dated using 20 radiocarbon dates, primarily individuals without grave goods or individuals from problematic contexts. The study mainly covers the period of the Early Eneolithic, to a lesser extent the Middle and Late Eneolithic. The find contexts and anthropological assessments are newly published for most of the burials in question. Based on the chronological analysis of graves dated by radiocarbon dating, it is possible to approximately define the time dispersion of individual burial methods in Moravia. Flat graves with individuals in a stretched position without grave goods can be most reliably dated to about 3800–3600 BC.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261813
Alfredo Cortell-Nicolau ◽  
Oreto García-Puchol ◽  
María Barrera-Cruz ◽  
Daniel García-Rivero

In the present article we use geometric microliths (a specific type of arrowhead) and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in order to evaluate possible origin points and expansion routes for the Neolithic in the Iberian Peninsula. In order to do so, we divide the Iberian Peninsula in four areas (Ebro river, Catalan shores, Xúquer river and Guadalquivir river) and we sample the geometric microliths existing in the sites with the oldest radiocarbon dates for each zone. On this data, we perform a partial Mantel test with three matrices: geographic distance matrix, cultural distance matrix and chronological distance matrix. After this is done, we simulate a series of partial Mantel tests where we alter the chronological matrix by using an expansion model with randomised origin points, and using the distribution of the observed partial Mantel test’s results as a summary statistic within an Approximate Bayesian Computation-Sequential Monte-Carlo (ABC-SMC) algorithm framework. Our results point clearly to a Neolithic expansion route following the Northern Mediterranean, whilst the Southern Mediterranean route could also find support and should be further discussed. The most probable origin points focus on the Xúquer river area.

T.A. Blyakharchuk ◽  
A.I. Bobrova ◽  
T.N. Zhilina

The paper presents the analysis of the natural and climatic conditions of the Early Iron and Middle Ages in the archaeological region of Priketye (Ket’ River region; Verkhneketsky district of the Tomsk Oblast, middle taiga) based on the available archaeological data and spore-and-pollen diagram of Maksimkin Yar, 58°30'N, 86°48'E, 100–150 m.a.s.l. (Blyakharchuk, 2012). The chronology of the archaeological sites and monuments covers a large time span — from the Neolithic to the late Middle Ages, including the time of the arrival of Russian farmers into the area. The aim of the study is to reconstruct the dynamics of the natural environment during the existence of the archaeological cultures of the indicated time interval using paleopalynological data from a nearby spore-and-pollen section, as well as to demonstrate the capabilities and advantages of complex paleoecological-archaeological research in the taiga zone of Western Siberia (middle course of the Ket’ River near the Maksimkin Yar village) previously not covered by such studies. The material and source of the archaeological data com-prised collections and archives of exploratory and stationary excavations of the archaeological sites from the area in the vicinity of the Maksimkin Yar village. Paleopalynological (spore-and-pollen diagram) and paleoecological (botanical composition of peat) data were obtained and published by one of the authors earlier (Blyakharchuk, 2012). In this work, comparative historical and statistical methods of the analysis of archaeological data were employed, along with two paleoecological methods (spore-and-pollen analysis and analysis of the botanical com-position of peat) with respective statistical processing of the numerical data from these analyses. The pa-leoecological block of information is presented graphically in the form of a spore-and-pollen diagram built on the basis of the paleopalynological data and two radiocarbon dates covering the studied time interval. The Bacon software was used to calibrate the radiocarbon dates and to date each sample. The studies have shown that the climate change in the boreal forest zone of Western Siberia influenced the lifestyle and economic activities of the population of the Priketye area. Correlation of the climatic and cultural events of the studied area with neighboring southwestern, southern, and southeastern regions showed their synchroneity with the dynamics of the hydrocli-mate on these territories. During the Iron Age and after the end of the late Middle Ages, there was a synchronous increase in humidity, both in the steppe zone and in the forest zone. In the Bronze Age and during the high Middle Ages, the steppe zone was humid, but less atmospheric precipitation fell out in the forest zone. These fluctuations in the moisture content are well correlated with the 500–600-year hydrological cycles in the steppe zone, identi-fied by geochemical indicators of the steppe Shira Lake in Khakassia (Kalugin et al., 2013, p. 251). Changes in the hydroclimatic conditions in the forest and steppe zones had different effects on the local cultures and could stimulate either their rise or decline, as well as migrations.

2021 ◽  
Abay Namen ◽  
Aristeidis Varis ◽  
Susanne Lindauer ◽  
Ronny Friedrich ◽  
Zhaken Taimagambetov ◽  

The PALAEOSILKROAD project has been conducting field surveys in Kazakhstan to explore the regional Palaeolithic record by targeting primarily caves and rockshelters. However, the survey also discovered numerous sites that were occupied during the Holocene. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings from the Nazugum rockshelter, a new archaeological site located in south-eastern Kazakhstan (Almaty region). The stratigraphic sequence demonstrates the transition from fluvial channel deposits without artifacts to aeolian loess deposits with lithics, charcoal remnants, and fragments of animal bones. The lithics recovered from the sediment wall are dominated by bladelet technology, characteristic for Holocene assemblages. Radiocarbon dates from adjacent charcoal samples yielded an age of 2461-2347 cal. years BC attributing the human occupation to the transitional period of late Eneolithic and early Bronze Age. Our study provides new data for the use of rockshelters in Kazakhstan during the late Holocene and lays the groundwork for future salvage work in Nazugum rockshelter due to the active erosion of the archaeological record.

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