field surveys
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Malik ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
Hamidullah ◽  
M. A. Iqbal ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  

Abstract The present study reports the existence of cliff racer, Platyceps rhodorachis from the plains of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 10 specimens were captured during the field surveys from June to September, 2018 from different sites of Punjab. Platyceps rhodorachis was identify on the basis of morphology and confirmed through COI gene sequences. The obtained DNA sequences have shown reliable and exact species identification. Newly produced DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MK936174.1, MK941839.1 and MT790210.1). N-J tree based on COI sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis clearly separated as out-group with other members of family Colubridae based on p-distance. The intra-specific genetic variation ranges from 12% to 18%. The DNA sequences of Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis, Platyceps rhodorachis ladacensis, Platyceps ventromaculatus, Platyceps ventromaculatus bengalensis and Platyceps ventromaculatus indusai are not available at NCBI to validate their taxonomic positions. In our recommendations, a large scale molecular based identification of Pakistan’s herpetofauna is required to report more new or subspecies from country.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Z. Ullah ◽  
S. Mahmood ◽  
Z. Iqbal ◽  
J. Khan ◽  
N. Akhtar ◽  

Abstract Asiatic black bear is present in variety of habitats like broad-leaves and coniferous forests, extending form sea level to 4300m elevation and change their habitat for food purpose seasonally. The present study was conducted at Kaghan and Siran Valleys, District Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess habitat of black bear. Line transect method was used for observation of bear signs. Twelve meter circular radius plots were selected for the concern vegetation’s i.e. (trees, shrubs and herbs) and three to six plots were placed in each transect. At the result of sign survey, thirteen different categories of bear signs were recorded and encounter rate was calculated for each sign. A total of 1858 signs were observed during field surveys. Total (81%) coniferous species were recoded among trees, with the highest appearance of Pinus wallichiana (34.22%) and Spruce spp (27.76%), similarly broad leaves trees (18.56%) were also recoded from habitat plots. Most of the signs were encountered in bushy areas, whereas high number of Viburnum Spp (60.29%) was present. It is indicated that black bear prefers blend of Coniferous Trees, Viburnum and Ferns Species; probably because these plants provide enough food, protection, and meticulous shelter because more than 80% of habitat composed of these three species. Currently habitat destruction and increase in human population are the up-growing issues for wild animals (especially Asiatic black bear), which is highly sensitive to such problems. High levels of conservation efforts are recommended for the protection of black bear habitat and to avoid human interference in their territory.

Matthew E. Cook ◽  
Martin S. Brook ◽  
Jon Tunnicliffe ◽  
Murry Cave ◽  
Noah P. Gulick

Recently uplifted, soft Pleistocene sediments in northern New Zealand are particularly vulnerable to landsliding because they are often underlain by less permeable, clay-rich Neogene mudstone/siltstone rocks. Typically, instability is rainfall-induced, often due to a high intensity rainfall event from extra-tropical cyclones, following wetter months when antecedent soil moisture has increased. Using remote sensing, field surveys and laboratory testing, we report on some emerging slope instability hazards in the eastern suburbs of the coastal city of Gisborne, on the North Island. Retrogressive failure of the main landslide (at Wallis Road) is ongoing and has already led to the abandonment of one home, while an adjacent landslide (at Titirangi Drive) appears to be in an incipient phase of failure. The Wallis Road landslide has been particularly active from mid-2017, with slumping of the headscarp area transitioning to a constrained mudflow downslope, which then descends a cliff before terminating on the beach. In contrast, the incipient Titirangi Drive landslide at present displays much more subtle effects of deformation. While activity at both landslides appears to be linked to rainfall-induced increases in soil moisture, this is due to the effects of prolonged periods of rainfall rather than the passage of high intensity cyclonic storms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Federico Morelli ◽  
Vojtěch Brlík ◽  
Yanina Benedetti ◽  
Raphaël Bussière ◽  
Lucie Moudrá ◽  

Bird counting inevitably suffers from imperfect detection, which varies across species, habitats, period of the day, and seasons. Although various modeling techniques have recently been developed to account for this phenomenon, the biological basis of natural variation in detection remains insufficiently known. This study examined the bird species’ detection rate throughout the day, considering their body mass and diet type, concerning the environment and weather characteristics. Species detection rates were significantly affected by the number of individuals of that species but were unrelated to body mass. Overall, species with the highest detection rate were Corn bunting, Blackbird, European robin, House sparrow and Common chiffchaff. Granivores-insectivores and insectivores showed significant differences in detection rates throughout the day among habitats, with higher detection rates in grasslands during the afternoon. Insectivores showed higher detection rates in farmland during midday (warmest time of the day). Granivores, omnivores and scavengers did not show changes in detection rates in different day periods. Such patterns in daily detection rates were significant even when considering abundance and total species richness in each community. Finally, cloudiness was unrelated to the overall detection rate of birds, while temperature and wind affected detection rates in some guilds. Our findings provide some advice for choosing a suitable ornithological sampling method by considering the avian communities composition in combination with the type of environment, the diet of bird species, and the period of the day.

PhytoKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 188 ◽  
pp. 31-47
Yi-Fei Lu ◽  
Xiao-Feng Jin

Our field surveys and specimen examination of Carex from southern to south-western regions in China resulted in the discovery of five new species and one new variety, which are here named as Carex brevihispida X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu (in sect. Surculosae), C. puberuliutriculata Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Clandestinae), C. paratatsiensis Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Aulocystis), C. huanjiangensis S.Yun Liang ex Y.F.Lu & X.F.Jin (sect. Decorae), C. liangiana X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu and C. thibetica Franch. var. angustifolia X.F.Jin & Y.F.Lu (sect. Rhomboidales).

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
pp. 435-444

The Uttarkashi earthquake of 20 October 1991, which caused widespread damage in the Galhwal Himalayan region, was followed by a prominent aftershock. activity extending over a period of about two months. The aftershock activity was monitored using temporary networks established after the mainshock and the permanent stations in operation in the region. About 142 aftershocks could be located accurately using the data of these stations. The b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter's relationship for the aftershock sequence works out to be 0.6. The temporal distribution of the aftershocks suggests a hyperbolic decay with a decay constant (p) of 1.17. Macroseismic observations derived from field surveys show good agreement with the instrumentally determined source parameters.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 112 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-42
Megan Jehn ◽  
Urvashi Pandit ◽  
Susanna Sabin ◽  
Camila Tompkins ◽  
Jessica White ◽  

We conducted a community seroprevalence survey in Arizona, from September 12 to October 1, 2020, to determine the presence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used the seroprevalence estimate to predict SARS-CoV-2 infections in the jurisdiction by applying the adjusted seroprevalence to the county’s population. The estimated community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 4.3 times greater (95% confidence interval = 2.2, 7.5) than the number of reported cases. Field surveys with representative sampling provide data that may help fill in gaps in traditional public health reporting. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):38–42. )

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
I. Hussain ◽  
S. A. Mehmood ◽  
S. Ahmed ◽  
M. Salim ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler’s Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler’s Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (42) ◽  
pp. 69
Vissoh Ahotondji Sylvain

Les villes accueillent souvent des évènements qui, de par leur nature et les manifestations qu’ils engendrent, marquent la trame urbaine et contribuent au développement local. Le but de la présente recherche est d’analyser l’inscription territoriale de la « fête du 15 août », le plus important évènement qu’accueille, chaque année, la ville de Savalou. L’approche méthodologique adoptée combine les recherches documentaires notamment sur la thématique ville et évènement, les enquêtes de terrain à travers l’observation participante des manifestations des éditions 2019 et 2021 de la fête du 15 août, les entretiens semi directifs avec les autorités communales et les questionnaires avec les promoteurs de réceptifs hôteliers, de restaurants ainsi que quelques forains et visiteurs urbains. Au total, 173 personnes ont été interrogées dans le cadre de cette recherche. Ces personnes ont été retenues par la méthode de choix raisonné. Les méthodes d’analyse de contenu et de statistiques descriptives ont permis de traiter les données et informations recueillies et le modèle SWOT ou FFOM (Forces, Faiblesses, Opportunités et Menaces) a été utilisé pour analyser les résultats obtenus. Il ressort des analyses que cinq (05) manifestations clés sont organisées dans le cadre de la « fête du 15 août » : il s’agit du rituel d’autorisation de la consommation des nouvelles ignames, la Grande Foire Artisanale de Savalou (GFAS), l’élection de Miss Savalou (la plus belle fille de la Commune de Savalou), la finale de la coupe de football de la commune et les concerts. Au plan spatial, l’évènement se déroule en plusieurs lieux à savoir le palais royal, la paroisse de l’église catholique, la maison des jeunes, le stade omnisport de la ville, la place Soha et le site de la foire. Il n’existe pas une structure officielle qui assure le portage de l’évènement ; chaque manifestation est organisée par un acteur donné sans qu’aucune coordination ne soit mise en place. Par ailleurs, très peu de recettes sont collectées par la mairie à l’occasion de cet évènement. On en déduit que l’évènement profite financièrement plus aux acteurs privés qu’à la municipalité.   Cities often host events which, by their nature and the events they generate, mark the urban fabric and contribute to local development. The aim of this research is to analyze the territorial inscription of the "feast of August 15", the most important event hosted each year by the city of Savalou. The methodological approach adopted combines documentary research, in particular on the city and event theme, field surveys through the participant observation of the events of the 2019 and 2021 editions of the August 15 festival, semi-structured interviews with the municipal authorities and questionnaires with the promoters of hotel receptives, restaurants as well as a few fairgrounds and urban visitors. A total of 173 people were interviewed for this research. These people were selected by the reasoned choice method. The methods of content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to process the data and information collected and the SWOT or SWOT model (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) was used to analyze the results obtained. It emerges from the analyzes that five (05) key events are organized within the framework of the “feast of August 15”: it is about the ritual of authorization of the consumption of new yams, the Great Artisanal Fair of Savalou (GFAS) , the election of Miss Savalou (the most beautiful girl in the Municipality of Savalou), the final of the municipal football cup and the concerts. Spatially, the event takes place in several locations, namely the Royal Palace, the parish of the Catholic Church, the youth center, the city's sports stadium, Soha Square and the site of the fair. There is no official structure that ensures the portering of the event; each event is organized by a given actor without any coordination being put in place. In addition, very little revenue is collected by the town hall during this event. We deduce that the event financially benefits private actors more than the municipality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 291-300
Mijahamuddin Alwi ◽  
Musabihatul Kudsiah ◽  
Arif Rahman Hakim ◽  
Saprudin Jauhari ◽  

Making Biopore holes is not difficult and does not require special skills but the results and benefits are much greater. Biopore functions as a water catchment and processing household waste. This method is quite effective in a densely populated environment and limited land. The purpose of this service is to provide knowledge and its application on how to process organic household waste through the Biopore system. The problems faced in Tebaban Barat village are sorting, separating, handling, and managing household waste. Handling household waste is only carried out by transporting waste from the house to the house, then throwing it into the landfills. So that the existing household waste is only wrapped in plastic and waiting for the schedule to pick up the landfills every week, this situation causes a bad smell. Implementing this activity includes field surveys, communication, collaboration, socialization, and mentoring. The survey results obtained are communicated with the village and residents. Then an agreement was made regarding the manufacture of Biopore holes. Furthermore, socialization about waste and conducting assistance activities for making Biopore holes was carried out. The results of the community assistance activities in making Biopore holes, 90% of the residents who attended were able to practice directly making Biopore holes either manually or using a drill and how to fill holes and harvest Biopore results. After the mentoring, the results of the visit carried out by the Team, 70% of the residents have implemented it in their respective homes even though it is still made manually. The activity invites interest from some people because it is seen from the usefulness of this activity. The Biopore is very suitable to be applied in that environment.

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