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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alejandra Wu Chuang ◽  
Oliver Kepp ◽  
Guido Kroemer ◽  
Lucillia Bezu

Local anesthetics are frequently employed during surgery in order to control peri- and postoperative pain. Retrospective studies have revealed an unexpected correlation between increased long-term survival and the use of local anesthetics during oncological surgery. This effect of local anesthetics might rely on direct cytotoxic effects on malignant cells or on indirect, immune-mediated effects. It is tempting to speculate, yet needs to be formally proven, that the combination of local anesthetics with oncological surgery and conventional anticancer therapy would offer an opportunity to control residual cancer cells. This review summarizes findings from fundamental research together with clinical data on the use of local anesthetics as anticancer standalone drugs or their combination with conventional treatments. We suggest that a better comprehension of the anticancer effects of local anesthetics at the preclinical and clinical levels may broadly improve the surgical treatment of cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2115135119
Author(s):  
Bhawakshi Punia ◽  
Srabanti Chaudhury ◽  
Anatoly B. Kolomeisky

Catalysis is a method of accelerating chemical reactions that is critically important for fundamental research as well as for industrial applications. It has been recently discovered that catalytic reactions on metal nanoparticles exhibit cooperative effects. The mechanism of these observations, however, remains not well understood. In this work, we present a theoretical investigation on possible microscopic origin of cooperative communications in nanocatalysts. In our approach, the main role is played by positively charged holes on metal surfaces. A corresponding discrete-state stochastic model for the dynamics of holes is developed and explicitly solved. It is shown that the observed spatial correlation lengths are given by the average distances migrated by the holes before they disappear, while the temporal memory is determined by their lifetimes. Our theoretical approach is able to explain the universality of cooperative communications as well as the effect of external electric fields. Theoretical predictions are in agreement with experimental observations. The proposed theoretical framework quantitatively clarifies some important aspects of the microscopic mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mingxiang Pan ◽  
Dexin Li ◽  
Jiahao Fan ◽  
Huaqing Huang

AbstractTwo-dimensional (2D) Stiefel-Whitney insulator (SWI), which is characterized by the second Stiefel-Whitney class, is a class of topological phases with zero Berry curvature. As an intriguing topological state, it has been well studied in theory but seldom realized in realistic materials. Here we propose that a large class of liganded Xenes, i.e., hydrogenated and halogenated 2D group-IV honeycomb lattices, are 2D SWIs. The nontrivial topology of liganded Xenes is identified by the bulk topological invariant and the existence of protected corner states. Moreover, the large and tunable bandgap (up to 3.5 eV) of liganded Xenes will facilitate the experimental characterization of the 2D SWI phase. Our findings not only provide abundant realistic material candidates that are experimentally feasible but also draw more fundamental research interest towards the topological physics associated with Stiefel-Whitney class in the absence of Berry curvature.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Irina Kuznecova ◽  
Mihail Prohorov

One of the forms of teaching physics in high schools with a natural science specialization and in the junior courses of universities can be an educational research project. The use of modern open scientific data makes it possible to make the project interesting, modern, relevant and multidisciplinary. The implementation of such a project allows the student to understand some areas of modern scientific research and the relationship between various natural sciences. Direct comparison of the project results with published fundamental research and discussion of the differences obtained are possible. As the first example of a training project, the determination of the frequency of asteroids and large meteorites (of the Tunguska and Chelyabinsk class) falling to Earth by counting craters on the surface of the Moon and Mercury is considered. Meets the requirements of the federal state educational standards of higher education of the latest generation. For students of higher educational institutions studying in natural science specialties: physics, astronomy, geography, geology, soil science, biology, etc—, and students of engineering and technical specialties of full-time and distance learning.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Michelle R. Bebber ◽  
Alastair J. M. Key

The discovery and development of metal as a tool medium is a topic of global interest. A fundamental research goal involves establishing the timing of human experimentation with naturally occurring copper ore, which is commonly associated with sedentary, agrarian-based societies. However, in North America, there is well-documented millennia-scale exploitation of copper as tool media by small, seasonally mobile hunter-gatherer groups in the western Great Lakes. Archaeologists have suggested that Late Paleoindian groups may have begun using copper as a tool medium almost immediately after they entered the Lake Superior basin. However, only a few radiocarbon dates support such early use of copper. Here, we use optimal linear estimation modeling to infer the origin date for copper tool production in North America. Our results show that the invention of copper as a tool media likely occurred shortly after the first pioneering populations encountered copper ore during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The origin dates modeled here (ca. 8100 RCYBP) reveal several important features about the behavior of pioneering hunter-gatherer populations. Moreover, our results suggest that this phenomenon represents the earliest known use of metal for utilitarian copper tool production.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Author(s):  
Yuanzhu Zhang ◽  
Runwei Wang ◽  
Zhi Ding

Crystalline admixtures (CAs) are new materials for promoting self-healing in concrete materials to repair concrete cracks. They have been applied to tunnel, reservoir dam, road, and bridge projects. The fundamental research and development of CAs are needed concerning their practical engineering applications. This paper reviews the current research progress of commercial CAs, including self-made CA healing cracks; the composition of CA; healing reaction mechanism; the composition of healing products; distribution characteristics of healing products; the influence of service environment and crack characteristics on the healing performance of CA; and coupling healing performance of CA with fiber, expansive agent, and superabsorbent polymers. The current research findings are summarized, and future research recommendations are provided to promote the development of high-performance cement matrix composites.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-45
Author(s):  
Sailekha P. ◽  
Sudhikumar K B

Covid-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-COV-2, which can cause severe respiratory illness and complications in patients. Recognizing Ayurveda's endless possibilities for improving immunity and preventing disease progression, the Ministry of AYUSH developed and approved the Ayurvedic protocol for handling Covid-19. Even though Ayurveda practitioners have been prescribing medicines to the Covid-19 patients since approval, no studies have been reported from Kerala regarding the effectiveness of the Ayurveda Treatment approaches. Hence the School of Fundamental Research in Ayurveda designed an observational study to evaluate the impact of the Ayurveda Treatment approaches in the management of Covid -19. The study result affirms that the Ayurvedic treatment method is very effective against Covid-19 and the role of Ayurveda in addressing the Covid-19 challenge is invaluable. Key words: Covid-19, Ayurvedic protocol, School of Fundamental Research in Ayurveda.


Public Health ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 49-55
Author(s):  
A. B. Gudkov ◽  
G. N. Degteva ◽  
O. A. Shepeleva

The Goal. To analyze the literature on the impact of high latitude climate on human health, as well as consider some aspects of adaptation to Arctic conditions and nutritional issues for the population and shift workers.Methods. Review of the articles placed in the bibliographic and abstract databases of VINITI, CyberLeninka, RSCI, Scopus, WoS, on the study of environmental and hygienic problems in the Arctic territories, where intense industrial activity is carried out. The following keywords were used: Arctic territories, adaptation, watch, food.Results. Long-term fundamental research has established that a complex of unfavorable and extreme natural and climatic factors in the Arctic causes two main syndromes in humans – “polar tension” and “northern tissue hypoxia”. Adaptation of new settlers in the Arctic territories proceeds in three stages. The duration of the shift period must have a physiological and hygienic justification and correspond to the duration of the period of stable working capacity. In high latitudes, it is especially important to develop diets and food products for various groups of the population and shift workers in relation to the specifics of their work in the Arctic regionsConclusions. Among the main environmental and hygienic problems of the Arctic territories, where intense industrial activity is carried out, it is necessary to highlight the tasks of scientific substantiation of rational modes of work and rest of workers in rotational forms of work. Also it’s necessary to define the quantitative and qualitative composition of food rations recommended for nutrition of various groups of the population, in relation to the specifics of production factors.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuto Katsuyama ◽  
Takayuki Takehi ◽  
Shu Sokabe ◽  
Mai Tanaka ◽  
Mizuki Ishizawa ◽  
...  

Abstract Inexpensive, high-performing, and environmentally friendly energy storage devices are required for smart grids that efficiently utilize renewable energy. Energy storage devices consisting of organic active materials are promising because organic materials, especially quinones, are ubiquitous and usually do not require harsh conditions for synthesis, releasing less CO2 during mass production. Although fundamental research-scale aqueous quinone-based organic supercapacitors have shown excellent energy storage performance, no practical research has been conducted. We aimed to develop a practical-scale aqueous-quinone-based organic supercapacitor. By connecting 12 cells of size 10 cm × 10 cm × 0.5 cm each in series, we fabricated a high-voltage (> 6 V) aqueous organic supercapacitor that can charge a smartphone at a 1 C rate. This is the first step in commercializing aqueous organic supercapacitors that could solve environmental problems, such as high CO2 emissions, air pollution by toxic metals, and limited electricity generation by renewable resources.


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